Radiotherapy Cost In Turkey
Radiotherapy Cost in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Radiotherapy Cost in Turkey and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
What is radiotherapy?
In order to eradicate cancer cells, radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays or other particles. A radiation oncologist is a medical professional who focuses on administering radiation treatment to treat cancer. Typically, a radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, consists of a predetermined number of sessions spaced out over a predetermined time.
What are the application areas of radiotherapy?
Many different forms of cancer can be treated with radiation treatment. Additionally, it can be used with other cancer therapies including chemotherapy and surgery. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, metastasis, can also be treated with radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy can be used for various body parts to treat cancer including the head, neck, breast, chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
What is cancer?
Cancer develops when a few body cells proliferate uncontrollably and spread to other physical organs. Cancer can grow virtually anywhere among the billions of cells that make up the human body. Human cells frequently divide to produce new cells as needed by the body which is a procedure known as cell proliferation and multiplication. When aging or damage causes cells to die, new ones take their place. Sometimes, this orderly process goes wrong, allowing damaged or abnormal cells to multiply when they shouldn’t. These cells can grow into tumors, which are tissue lumps. Malignant tumors could or might not exist.
A cancerous tumor may spread to other parts of the body, infect nearby tissues, or even do both, a process called metastasis. Tumors with cancer are also referred to as malignant tumors. Unlike many other cancers, blood malignancies, such as leukemias, seldom produce solid tumors. Noncancerous tumors don’t infiltrate or spread to surrounding tissues. After removal, benign tumors normally don’t recur, although malignant tumors sometimes do. The term “recurrent cancer” refers to cancer that returns after therapy. However, benign tumors can occasionally get very large. Some of these, like benign brain tumors, can cause serious negative effects or even result in death.
How radiotherapy treats cancer?
When healthy cells transform and proliferate out of control, cancer is born. All of the body’s cells go through a cycle of growth, division, and multiplication. Normal cells go through this procedure more slowly than cancer cells do. Radiation therapy destroys cell DNA, causing the cells to stop proliferating or die. Radiation therapy often targets a localized area of the body rather than the entire body like chemotherapy does. This implies that it typically exclusively affects the area of the body where the cancer is found. During treatment, healthy tissue in close proximity to the cancer cells may sustain harm, but it normally regenerates once the treatment is over. Radiation therapy comes in a wide variety of forms, and each one’s approach to eliminating cancer cells varies slightly.
What are the aims of radiotherapy?
The objectives of radiation therapy depend on the sort of cancer you have, whether it has spread, and how much. Radiation therapy can be administered on its own or as a component of a comprehensive treatment strategy. The following are a few applications for radiation therapy,
As the primary treatment: Radiation therapy frequently aims to completely eradicate cancer while preventing its recurrence.
Before other treatments: To reduce a large tumor, radiation therapy might be used before other therapies like surgery. “Neoadjuvant radiation treatment” is what this is.
After other treatments: To eradicate any leftover cancer cells, radiation therapy might be used following other forms of treatment. The other name for this is “Adjuvant radiation treatment”.
To cease symptoms: Radiation therapy can be used to treat cancer symptoms and indications. The other name for this is “Palliative radiation therapy”.
What are the types of radiotherapy?
Here are the most frequently applied types of radiotherapy listed for you. You may question “What is the cost of radiotherapy in Turkey?”. To learn about the cost of radiotherapy in Turkey continue reading.
External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT)
External-beam radiation therapy is the most used kind of radiation treatment. Radiation is delivered by a device outside the body. If necessary, it can be applied to treat sizable portions of the body. The radiation beam used in x-ray or photon radiation therapy is created by a device known as a linear accelerator or linac. The beam’s size and shape are modified by specialized computer software. This makes it easier to remove the tumor while avoiding neighboring healthy tissue. For several weeks, most radiation therapy treatments are administered every working day. For radiation therapy to the head, neck, or brain, form-fitting supports or a plastic mesh mask are used to keep patients immobile and ensure that the beam hits the same area each session.
There are various forms of external-beam radiation therapy, including:
Three-dimensional conformal radiation (3D-CRT)
Using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, precise 3-dimensional images of the malignancy are produced during this type of radiation therapy. These pictures are used by the medical staff to direct the beam. With this method, the medical staff can safely provide larger radiation therapy dosages while minimizing harm to healthy tissue. This reduces the chance of adverse effects.
Therapy using intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT)
This kind of radiation therapy is more intricate. Variations in radiation intensity are possible with IMRT. Contrary to standard 3D-CRT, which employs the same intensity for each beam, this is different. Compared to standard 3D-CRT, IMRT more effectively targets the tumor while avoiding healthy tissue.
Proton beam treatment
Protons are used in this procedure in place of x-rays. A positively charged particle is a proton. Protons are capable of killing cancer cells at high energies. Protons deliver a precise dose of radiation therapy to the targeted tumor. Proton therapy delivers much less radiation outside the tumor than x-ray beams. This minimizes harm to the tissue in the area. It needs specialized equipment to perform proton therapy, a relatively new medical procedure. Presently, only specific cancer types are treated with it. Study up on proton therapy. radiation treatment with image guidance (IGRT). Imaging is used in IGRT during radiation therapy. Images are compared to those taken before to the start of treatment and while it is being administered. This enables medical professionals to accurately position the radiation.
Treatment with stereotactic radiation (SRT)
With this therapy, a small tumor area receives a strong, focused dosage. The patient needs to be quite motionless. Moving parts are limited by a head frame or specific body molds. SRT is frequently administered in a single session or in fewer than ten sessions. More than one SRT training may be necessary for some persons.
Brachytherapy is another name for internal radiation therapy. It is typically used for cancers related to the head, neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. When radioactive material is injected into cancer or surrounding tissue, radiation treatment is used. Implants can be either temporary or permanent. The procedure can necessitate a hospital stay. Different types of brachytherapy can be listed as follows,
These small radioactive steel seeds are made of steel. The size of the capsules is comparable to a rice grain. Around the implant location, they give the majority of the radiation therapy. However, some radiation may leave the body of the patient. To prevent people from being exposed to radiation, safety precautions are needed. The implants gradually lose their radioactivity. The body still contains the passive seeds.
This kind of radiation therapy can be administered via a needle, a catheter, or specialized applicators. The duration of the radiation’s presence in the body can range from a few minutes to a few days. Internal radiation therapy typically lasts only a few minutes per patient. Internal radiation therapy may occasionally be provided for longer periods of time. If so, they stay in a secluded room to reduce radiation exposure to other people.
Other Types of Radiotherapy
Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT): This procedure uses internal or external beam radiation therapy to administer radiation therapy to the tumor while it is being surgically removed. IORT enables surgeons to remove healthy tissue from the path of radiation therapy to prevent damage to it. When crucial organs are close to the tumor, this treatment is beneficial.
Systematic radiation therapy: Targeting cancer cells, radioactive material is injected or ingested by patients. Urine, saliva, and perspiration are three ways that radioactive material departs the body. People who are in close proximity to the patient should follow the safety precautions advised by the medical staff because these fluids are radioactive. Radiation therapy using radioactive iodine (I-131) for thyroid cancer is an illustration of systemic radiation therapy.
The most popular method for treating some types of thyroid cancer is radioactive iodine, or I-131, a form of systemic radiation treatment. Some patients with advanced prostate cancer or gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors receive treatment with targeted radionuclide therapy, another form of systemic radiation therapy (GEP-NET). The term “molecular radiotherapy” is another name for this kind of therapy.
Radioimmunotherapy: To administer radiation directly to the tumors, it specifically makes use of monoclonal antibodies, which are proteins that are drawn to highly particular markers on the exterior of cancer cells. Due to the employment of these unique antibodies, the surrounding normal tissue is less affected by the treatment. Ibritumomab (Zevalin), which is used to treat certain lymphomas, is one instance.
Radioprotectors and radiosensitizers: Radiosensitizers and radioprotectors are being researched. Radiosensitizers are chemicals that make radiation therapy more effective at removing malignancies. Healthy tissues close to the treatment region are shielded by radioprotectors. Examples of radiosensitizers are fluorouracil (5-FU, Adrucil) and cisplatin (Platinol). Amifostine (Ethyol) on the other hand, is a radioprotector.
What are the side effects of radiotherapy?
Keep in mind that the sort of radiation side effects you may experience varies on the dose and schedule recommended. After treatment is over, the majority of side effects go disappear within a few months. Because it takes time for the healthy cells to recover from radiation, some side effects could linger even after therapy is finished. The side effects can develop at the early stages of treatment or later stages. Early side effects such as hair loss or mouth problems related to the area that is getting the treatment usually last for only a few weeks and disappear. If brachytherapy (internal radiation implants) is part of your treatment, you can experience breast discomfort, tightness, redness, and bruising.
Some side effects are as follows,
Fatigue: Feeling physically, mentally, and emotionally worn out is fatigue. This occurs as a result of radiation treatments destroying both healthy and cancerous cells. As the treatment progresses, fatigue typically grows worse. Fatigue can worsen due to illness-related stress and frequent journeys for medical care. Managing fatigue carries crucial importance as a part of care.
Skin problems: Your skin may appear irritated, inflamed, swollen, blistered, burnt, or browned in the radiation therapy region. Your skin may start to peel or feel dry, flaky, or irritated after a few weeks. Radiation dermatitis is another name for this. Any skin changes should be reported to your cancer care team. They can offer suggestions on how to reduce the discomfort, calm the irritation, and avoid infection. After the treatment is over, these issues often fade gradually.
Hair loss: In the treated area, radiation therapy may result in hair loss or thinning. For instance, receiving radiation to your head could result in you losing part or all of the hair there (including your eyebrows and eyelashes), while receiving treatment to your hip won’t result in hair loss on your head.
Low blood counts: Rarely, the effects of radiation therapy can alter your blood count levels. Your body uses these blood cells to combat infection and stop bleeding. Your treatment may be suspended for about a week if your blood tests reveal low blood counts so that they can return to normal.
Side effects related to the treatment of specific areas of the body include,
- Shortness of breath
- Heart complications: The heart can be impacted by breast radiation. It can lead to heart valve damage, artery hardening, or irregular heartbeats, all of which increase your risk of having a heart attack later on.
- Fertility problems: Fertility problems can occur both in men and women. For women, ask your cancer treatment team how radiation might damage your ability to have children. In order to be informed of any dangers to your fertility, it is best to do this prior to beginning treatment. Women undergoing pelvic radiation therapy may have menopausal symptoms, including irregular periods, depending on the radiation dose. Inform your oncologist of these symptoms and ask them how to manage the adverse effects. After radiation therapy is finished, menstruation periods may occasionally resume or they may not. For men, the quantity of sperm and their functional capacity can both be decreased by radiation therapy in an area that encompasses the testicles. Before beginning treatment, discuss with your cancer care team any concerns about diminished fertility if you intend to have children in the future. One choice might be to save your sperm in advance.
- Bladder problems: Radiation to the pelvis might result in urinary issues; such as sensations of burning and pain, difficulty in passing urine, blood in the urine, and a tendency to urinate often.
What are the risks of radiotherapy and how to avoid them?
Radiation therapy has adverse effects, just like other cancer treatments. Discuss your expectations and current symptoms with your medical team before, during, and after therapy. Most people don’t experience any pain during treatment, but depending on where in the body the medication is being given, impacts of treatment may include soreness, skin changes, or other side effects over time. The advice to eliminate the risks for certain therapy types is given below.
External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy: The patient does not continue to emit radiation following treatment sessions after receiving external beam radiation therapy. Radiation only exists in the treatment room. Contrastingly patients who receive internal radiation therapy emit radiation. Visitors should therefore adhere to these safety precautions unless the patient’s physician gives different instructions,
- If you are expecting a child or you are under 18 years old, do not visit the patient.
- Keep a minimum of 6 feet away from the patient’s bed.
- Keep your visit to no more than 30 minutes every day.
- Even after the patient leaves the hospital, permanent implants continue to be radioactive. Because of this, the patient should avoid prolonged interaction with children or expectant women for two months.
Systematic Radiation Therapy: Similar to this, patients receiving systemic radiation therapy should adhere to safety protocols. Here are some typical safety precautions to take in the initial days following treatment. Be sure to discuss any specific treatment instructions with your medical team.
- Once you’ve used the restroom, properly wash your hands.
- Separate your towels and utensils.
- To remove the body’s residual radioactive substances, drink a lot of water.
- Don’t get involved in sexual activities
- Try to keep your distance from children, pregnant women, and infants.
What to pay attention to in the course of treatment?
The adverse effects of radiation, such as nausea, mouth sores, and esophagitis, might make it difficult to eat. You must consume enough calories and protein to maintain your weight throughout radiation therapy since your body expends a lot of energy healing. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you are struggling to eat and keep your weight under control. It would be beneficial for you to consult a dietitian as well. Some patients who get radiation therapy can maintain full-time employment. Others are limited to part-time or no employment. Your ability to work depends on how you are feeling.
Find out from your doctor or nurse what to anticipate from your course of treatment. During radiation therapy, there may come a time when you feel too ill to work. Ask your company if you can take a medical leave of absence. Verify that your health insurance will cover medical care while you are on leave for a medical condition.
What is the cost of radiotherapy?
You may ask yourself “What is the radiotherapy cost in Turkey?”. Radiotherapy cost in Turkey can be high. It makes use of sophisticated equipment and the assistance of numerous healthcare professionals. The precise radiotherapy cost in Turkey will vary depending on your location, the cost of healthcare, the type of radiation therapy you receive, and the number of treatments you require. Discuss the services that your health insurance will cover with them. Radiation therapy is typically covered by insurance policies. Speak with the business office of the clinic or hospital where you receive treatment to learn more.