Chemotherapy Cost In Turkey
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What is chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy is a medicinal therapy that uses potent chemicals to kill your body’s rapidly proliferating cells. Chemotherapy is most frequently used to treat cancer because cancer cells reproduce and develop considerably more quickly than the majority of body cells. Chemotherapy medications come in a wide variety. A number of malignancies can be treated with chemotherapy medications either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or other treatment types of cancer.
What are the uses of chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy is used to destroy cancerous cells in cancer patients. Chemotherapy can be administered to cancer patients in a variety of situations, including:
- Treating cancer without additional therapies. Chemotherapy can be used as the main or only form of cancer treatment.
- Eliminating cancer cells that are hidden after other therapies. After previous treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy can be used to eliminate any cancer cells that may still be present in the body. The term for this is adjuvant treatment.
- Getting you ready for additional treatments. A tumor can be reduced by chemotherapy so that additional therapies, such as radiation and surgery, are feasible. The term for this is neoadjuvant treatment.
- Reducing symptoms and indications. Chemotherapy works by destroying some cancer cells, which may help relieve cancer signs and symptoms. Palliative chemotherapy is the term used by doctors.
Which cancer types can chemotherapy treat?
Leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, multiple myeloma, sarcoma, as well as breast, lung, and ovarian cancers are just a few of the numerous types of cancer chemotherapy treats.
More than 100 different medicines are used in chemotherapy for cancer. Despite the fact that all chemotherapy medications cause cell death, they target certain cell types at various points in the cell cycle. Combining medications that harm the cancer cell in several ways can improve the efficacy of the treatment.
What are the types of chemotherapy?
Below are the main types of chemotherapy,
These substances harm DNA and stop mitosis. They are used to treat cancers like lung, breast, and ovarian as well as leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and sarcoma. This class of medications includes, for instance: Nitrogen mustards such as ifosfamide, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil Alkylsulfonates like busulfan Streptozotocin, carmustine, and lomustine are examples of nitrosoureas. dacarbazine and other triazines Ethylenimines like altretamine and thiotepa cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are examples of platinum medicines.
Because they kill cells, antimetabolites are classified as a “cytotoxic” type of medication. They function by imitating the chemicals required for cell growth. Antimetabolites are used by cells instead of the RNA and DNA that normally serve as their genetic building blocks once they have been deceived into ingesting the medications. The medications prevent the cells from copying their DNA, which prevents them from dividing into new cells. Antimetabolites are most effective against cancers that are expanding quickly since they only target cells as they are dividing. Leukemias and malignancies of the breast, ovary and intestinal system are the most typical conditions that antimetabolites are used to treat. However, because the medications restrict the growth of any rapidly dividing cell type, they can also be used to treat a variety of other malignancies. Anthracyclines: Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that prevent DNA replication by inhibiting these enzymes. Doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, and epirubicin are a few medicines in this class.
These substances prevent the enzyme topoisomerase from doing its normal job of untangling DNA strands to allow for replication. Leukemia, as well as lung, ovarian, and gut cancer, are all treated with them. Topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide, and teniposide are a few examples.
These medications, also known as mitotic inhibitors, stop the cell cycle’s M phase and prevent mitosis. In addition to myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia, they are used to treat breast and lung cancer. Taxanes like paclitaxel and docetaxel, as well as vinca alkaloids like vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine, are examples of medications in this class.
Both naturally occurring hormones like steroid hormones and their synthetic counterparts are included in this medication class. Examples of these include prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone, and they are used to treat lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma.
How chemotherapy functions?
Chemotherapy medications function in a variety of ways. They can,
- Kill healthy and cancerous cells
- Only combat cancer cells
- Halt the development of tumor blood vessels, which are necessary for their growth
- Attack the genes of the cancer cells to cause them to die and prevent them from forming new tumors.
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How chemotherapy drugs are applied?
Chemotherapy medications can be administered in a variety of methods such as,
Infusions of chemotherapy. Most frequently, chemotherapy is administered through a vein infusion (intravenously). The medications can be administered by inserting a tube with a needle into an arm vein or a chest vein.
Pills for chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy medications are available as pills or capsules. Chemotherapy injections. Chemotherapy medications can be administered intravenously, much like a shot.
Creams for chemotherapy. Some forms of skin cancer can be treated using creams or gels that contain chemotherapy medications.
Medicines to treat a specific body part. Drugs used in chemotherapy can be administered directly to a body part. Chemotherapy medications, for instance, might be administered directly into the belly (intraperitoneal chemotherapy), chest cavity (intrapleural chemotherapy), or central nervous system (intrathecal chemotherapy). Another method of administering chemotherapy to the bladder is through the urethra (intravesical chemotherapy).
Direct administration of chemotherapy to cancer. Chemotherapy can be administered either directly to the malignancy or to the surgical site where the tumor was removed. For instance, during surgery, thin wafers in the form of disks that contain chemotherapy medications might be positioned close to a tumor. Chemotherapy chemicals are released over time when the wafers degrade. Chemotherapy medications can also be injected directly into an artery or vein that supplies a tumor with blood.
How the drug types that should be used is determined?
The ideal doses and regimens for each chemotherapy agent are sometimes well-known and based on research studies. In some circumstances, the ideal course of treatment for specific cancer kinds and stages may not be fully understood. The patient may also be suffering from another medical condition that leads the doctor to believe that a particular course of treatment is not the best option due to potential side effects or other issues. In these circumstances, various doctors may select various pharmacological combinations with various schedules.
The cancer care team takes into account the following factors when recommending treatment options:
- Cancer subtypes and types
- Cancer’s progression stage (how far it has spread)
- Results of additional tumor testing, such as biomarker analysis
- How old is the patient
- General health and present
- Medications of the patient related to the additional health issues (such as heart, liver, or kidney diseases)
- Cancer treatments that have been used in the past
All of these elements are taken into consideration by the team, along with details from research studies that describe the results of similar individuals who underwent chemotherapy and are published in textbooks and medical publications.
How the dosage of the drugs is determined?
The majority of chemotherapy (chemo) medications are powerful agents with a relatively small range for dose safety and effectiveness. A medicine will not effectively treat cancer if it is taken in the wrong dosage, and the opposite is true if it is taken in excess. Doctors must carefully calculate chemotherapy doses because of this. There are numerous methods for calculating chemotherapy doses depending on the drugs to be administered. Most chemotherapy medications are weighed in milligrams (mg). The total dose might be determined by the person’s kilos of body weight (1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds).
For instance, a person who weighs 50 kilograms (110 pounds) might be prescribed a medication that calls for 10 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of weight, which translates to 500 milligrams of the medication (50kg x 10mg per kilogram = 500mg). Based on body surface area (BSA), which is figured out using height and weight, several chemotherapy doses are chosen. Meters squared are used to measure BSA (m2). Even after accounting for BSA, doses for children and adults vary because of the different ways that children’s bodies process medications. The sensitivity of children to the medications may also vary. Children require different dosages, and some medications may also require alterations for the following individuals:
- Elderly people
- Individuals with poor eating habits
- Individuals who are obese
- Individuals that have utilized other medications in the past or present
- Individuals that received radiation treatment in the past or present
- Individuals having low levels of blood cells
- Individuals having a kidney or liver condition may not be able to tolerate full doses in other cases.
What are the steps of preparation for treatment?
The medications you’ll take and how they’ll be administered will determine how you should prepare for chemotherapy. To help you get ready for your chemotherapy treatments, your doctor will provide you with detailed instructions.
Things to consider:
A device before starting intravenous chemotherapy will be surgically planted in your body. Your doctor may suggest a device, such as a catheter, port, or pump if you will be getting your chemotherapy intravenously—into a vein. A big vein, typically in your chest, is surgically inserted with a catheter or other device. The gadget can be used to administer chemotherapy medications.
To ensure that your body is prepared to take chemotherapy, have tests and procedures done. You can find out if your body is prepared to start chemotherapy by having blood tests to examine the condition of your heart, kidneys, and liver. If there is an issue, your doctor might postpone your therapy or decide on a chemotherapy agent and dosage that is safer for you.
Visit the dentist. Your doctor might advise having your teeth examined by a dentist for indications of infection. Since some chemotherapy may impair your body’s capacity to fight infections, treating existing infections may lessen the chance of complications during chemotherapy.
Be prepared for adverse effects. Make the necessary preparations and ask your doctor what side effects to anticipate during and after treatment. For instance, you might want to think about your options for storing your sperm or eggs for use in the future if your chemotherapy treatment will make you infertile. Plan for a head covering if your chemotherapy will induce hair loss.
Make plans for assistance both at work and at home. Since the majority of chemotherapy treatments are administered in an outpatient setting, most patients are able to continue working and engaging in other regular activities while undergoing chemotherapy. It’s challenging to foresee exactly how you’ll feel; nevertheless, your doctor can give you a basic idea of how much the chemotherapy will interfere with your normal activities. Inquire with your doctor if you’ll require time off work or home assistance after treatment. To make plans for work, kids, pets, or other commitments, ask your doctor for the specifics of your chemotherapy treatments.
Get ready for your first appointment. To learn how to prepare for chemotherapy, consult your doctor or the chemotherapy nurses. It could be beneficial to be well-rested when you go in for your first chemotherapy treatment. If you think your chemotherapy treatments will make you queasy, you might want to eat a small meal beforehand. Have a friend or member of your family take you to your first appointment. Most people can travel independently to and from their treatment appointments. However, the first time you take them, you might discover that they make you tired or have other negative side effects that make driving challenging.
How often does chemotherapy get applied?
Chemotherapy is sometimes administered in cycles, which are intervals of time. A cycle is when you take a dose of one or more medications on one or more days, then go for a few days or weeks without taking them. This allows time for normal cells to recover from adverse medication effects. It is possible to provide a dose every other day for a few days or a set number of days in a row, followed by a period of rest. Some medicines function best when taken continuously for a predetermined period of days. Each medication is administered according to a regimen that maximizes its anti-cancer effectiveness and reduces side effects. The treatment plan will include how frequently and exactly when each drug should be administered if more than one drug is used.
What are the risks and side effects of chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy medications can have serious side effects. The adverse effects of each drug vary, and not all drugs have all side effects. The following are typical adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs:
- Hair loss
- Reduced appetite Fatigue
- Mouth sores
- Easy bruising
Many of these adverse effects are either treatable or preventable. After therapy, most adverse effects go away.
Additionally, some adverse effects of chemotherapy treatments can take months or even years to manifest. Depending on the chemotherapy treatment, late side effects can include the followings:
- Lung tissue injury
- Heart issues
- Kidney issues
- Nerve injury (peripheral neuropathy)
Can chemotherapy be applied in combination with other cancer treatment types?
Hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted treatment are a few additional pharmacological classes outside chemotherapy that are used to treat cancer. Oncologists occasionally combine chemotherapy with another kind of medication in a patient’s treatment regimen. These classes of medications have various mechanisms of action for treating cancer, and they typically have different side effects from chemotherapy. Discuss the expected outcomes of your specific medicines with your healthcare provider.
Hormone Therapy: In a form of cancer treatment called hormone therapy, the body’s production of particular hormones is reduced, blocked, or increased. It is also known as endocrine therapy or hormonal therapy. Several different forms of cancer can be treated with hormone therapy.
Immunotherapy: This kind of treatment aids your body’s built-in defenses in their battle against cancer. Since it has advanced so quickly in recent years, immunotherapy is now a critical component of the management of multiple cancer types.
Targeted therapy: These therapies target the proteins or genes that cancer cells have that they need to proliferate and disable them. A variety of cancers can be treated using targeted therapy.
What is chemoradiation?
Chemoradiation or chemoradiotherapy refers to the simultaneous administration of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by using cytotoxic (anti-cancer) medicines. To kill cancer cells, radiation therapy uses powerful rays. Radiotherapy may be more effective against cancer cells when given chemotherapeutic medications. Therefore, more tumor cells may be killed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy combined.
What is the chemotherapy cost in Turkey?
You may ask yourself “What is the chemotherapy cost in Turkey?”. Chemotherapy has numerous components, and each one is expensive. For this reason, chemotherapy cost in Turkey is high. Begin by getting an overall treatment cost estimate from your doctor. There may be fees for factors like visits to clinics, laboratory tests, imaging tests, consultations with specialists, chemo drugs, and other drugs to eliminate the side effects such as pain or nausea. Taking all these factors into consideration the prices change between $5,000 and $10,000.