Frequently Asked Questions in IVF

Frequently Asked Questions in IVF

Frequently Asked Questions in IVF is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What elements have an impact on women’s fertility?

Age is the most significant aspect. The likelihood of conception declines as a woman ages. The likelihood of becoming pregnant after the age of 44 is essentially nonexistent. The likelihood of conception is also adversely affected by prior STDs, infections of the ovaries, and tube infections. Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

How often should women have a gynaecological examination?

Women who are sexually active should get gynaecological exams every year. The PAP test should be carried out in conjunction with these exams to screen for cervical cancer.Invest in your health, invest in a brighter future. Our comprehensive medical programs deliver real results, while you indulge in the beauty and serenity of our destination.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Are uterine blockages and fibroids harmful to pregnancy?

The likelihood of conception is impacted if the fibroids exert pressure on the uterus’ inner layer, which is where the baby will grow. Fibroids that have grown out of the uterine wall, however, do not affect the chance of pregnancy unless they are huge. The clogged tubes make pregnancy impossible.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

When should couples who cannot have children despite a stable relationship seek treatment?

After a year, an evaluation and treatment should begin if the woman is younger than 37 and has no medical issues that might impair the development of a fetus.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Does IVF represent the sole option for infertile couples?

When a couple struggles to conceive, the cause of the issue should be identified through a thorough examination, and the treatment strategy that will help the couple become pregnant the easiest should be identified and provided to the couple. Treatment methods; In the roughest classification, surgical treatment of tube problems, ovulation warning and follow-up, vaccination and IVF treatment. In couples with suitable conditions, pregnancy can be achieved with the “intrauterine insemination” (vaccination) treatment, which means that the sperm is passed into the uterus after certain procedures, following the development of the egg with drugs.We offer advanced expertise, tailored treatment plans, and compassionate care, every step of the way. Choose us, and choose a future where health isn’t just a destination, but a vibrant, empowered journey you take with trusted companions by your side.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Is it obligatory for the tubes to be open in IVF applications?

No. After the collected eggs are fertilized with sperm, the embryos formed are placed in the uterus. (The eggs are collected in the vaginal route with the help of ultrasonography.) Therefore, the patency of the tuba does not matter, but if there is a fluid accumulation in the tuba, the flow of this fluid into the uterus will affect the embryo attachment, so the tuba should be removed or its connection with the uterus should be cut.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

What is the risk of miscarriage in pregnancies with IVF treatment?

It is known that approximately 15% of pregnancies formed by spontaneous or in vitro fertilization methods end in miscarriage. Early miscarriage in spontaneous pregnancies can sometimes be perceived as a delay in menstrual bleeding for a few days followed by a slightly larger than normal menstrual bleeding. Following this, blood tests will show that this is a pregnancy loss. Since pregnancy results are followed up with blood tests from the early period in IVF applications, pregnancy losses in every period are defined.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Does smoking hinder having children?

Smoking is known to increase heart, lung and blood vessel diseases. Another harmful effect of smoking is on reproductive functions, but this is often overlooked. Smoking negatively affects conception and the pregnancy’s reaching its term.

Does stress cause infertility?

Although infertility and its treatment are very stressful experiences, it is difficult to say that infertility occurs due to stress. However, in some cases, high levels of stress can cause hormonal levels to change in women and, accordingly, to impaired egg development. In addition, excessive stress can also cause fallopian tube spasms in women and reduced sperm count in men. IVF treatment can be a very stressful process for some couples. A psychologist needs to be working with the patient during IVF treatment and provide the necessary support to couples who need it.

Is the pregnancy rate the same for everyone?

It may not be the same in every application, even for the same couple. The factors listed above may vary. A bad embryo can be transferred in one month, a good embryo may develop in the next month and pregnancy may occur. Even if there is no other application to improve the chance of pregnancy (hysteroscopy and laparoscopy procedures are performed between two applications when necessary), the chance of pregnancy is different for each application and each embryo.

What is PGD (Preimplantation genetic diagnosis) and what are its benefits?

In our age, genetic diseases can be detected during pregnancy or after birth. Genetic diseases in the baby can only be detected in the fourth month of pregnancy by tests such as ultrasonography and amniocentesis, and when a serious abnormality is detected, the pregnancy is terminated around the 5th month. With the experience gained, and the developments in genetics in recent years, before pregnancy occurs, the genetic examination is performed on the embryos developed in the laboratory with in vitro fertilization treatment, and the selected healthy embryos are placed in the womb of the expectant mother. This process is called pre-pregnancy genetic diagnosis PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis). Pre-pregnancy genetic diagnosis is carried out by fertilizing the egg and sperm cells obtained from the mother and father-to-be in the laboratory environment and taking one cell from the developing embryos. Special methods called Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are used for genetic diagnosis. It is possible to detect numerical chromosomal disorders such as monosomy or trisomy (Down syndrome and other trisomies) and single gene diseases (such as haemophilia, Mediterranean anaemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophies) in the baby to be born with PGD. Thus, it is aimed to give birth to healthy babies by transferring healthy embryos to the expectant mother.

To whom is PGD (Preimplantation genetic diagnosis) applied?

  • Couples with recurrent miscarriages in early pregnancies,
  • Women in the advanced age group (37 years and over) who started treatment for infertility,
  • Couples who have not achieved pregnancy or whose pregnancies have resulted in miscarriage despite the application of many assisted reproductive techniques,
  • Couples with chromosomal disorders due to genetic diseases or severe male infertility,
  • Couples with a genetic or hereditary disease carrier,
  • Due to HLA genotyping (tissue typing),
  • Diagnostic naming of genetically predisposed diseases,
  • Couples who have a child or children with previous genetic diseases.

What is the importance of PGD in diseases such as thalassemia, and haemophilia, and is it possible to perform tissue typing in embryos?

People pass on the hereditary disease they carry to their children to varying degrees. For this reason, it is of great importance to detect genetic diseases and identify them in embryos for couples to have healthy children. To determine the genetic disorders that cause hereditary diseases, it is necessary to determine the structure of the gene that causes the disease.


During the treatment, genetic tests are performed in our centre to determine genetic disorders in blood samples of parents and sick children, if any, and the genetic structure that causes the disease is reproduced with special methods in the cells taken from the embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization of couples who are carriers of hereditary disease, and the gene region of the scanned disease is DNA determined by the test method. As a result, embryos carrying hereditary diseases are eliminated, and by transferring healthy embryos, children without genetic diseases can be formed.


In diseases such as B-thalassemia, Fanconi anaemia and leukaemia, healthy embryos are detected by the DNA sequencing method and HLA genotyping (tissue typing) can be applied simultaneously and the tissue type of embryos can be determined. In families with children diagnosed with thalassemia or leukaemia by the HLA genotyping method After determining the tissue types of the mother, father and child, embryos that are suitable for the diseased child and the tissue type can be selected among the embryos that do not carry the disease.


Can it be determined whether the fertilized eggs (embryos) are abnormal before they are transferred into the uterus?

By applying preimplantation genetic diagnosis, embryos with chromosomal disorders can be selected and only healthy ones can be transferred.

What are the precautions to be taken about genetic problems before pregnancy?

PGD ​​(Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis) method is applied to determine genetic problems before pregnancy. With the PGD test, embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization in families at risk for hereditary diseases are examined and healthy embryos that do not carry the disease are transferred. In women over 35 – 45 years of age, the success rate decreases with advanced age, and it is possible to end in miscarriage even if pregnancy is achieved. Due to the increase in chromosomal disorders in eggs with advanced age, embryos obtained from couples who will undergo IVF treatment are biopsied when they reach the third day. One or two cells obtained are evaluated within a few hours using molecular diagnostic methods, and healthy embryos are selected and transferred.

What are the advantages of preimplantation genetic diagnosis?

  • It increases the chance of pregnancy and reduces the chance of miscarriage.
  • Families are provided with healthy children.
  • The family is protected from medical and psychological traumas due to the termination of pregnancy.
  • In diseases such as thalassemia, the baby to be born with tissue typing provides treatment for the sick children of the family.
  • pre-pregnancy diagnosis; It is a much more useful and inexpensive diagnostic method compared to the health problems that patients face throughout their lives, the difficulties in the treatment of diseases and high treatment costs.

Who are genetically at risk?

  • Women 37 years and older
  • Couples with a genetic or hereditary disease carrier
  • Couples with recurrent miscarriages and stillbirths
  • Couples with a history of a genetic disease in a close relative (such as a 1st cousin)
  • Structural anomalies found in the body
  • History of a child with mental retardation
  • People with growth retardation and short stature
  • Couples with a previous genetic disease
  • with abnormalities of sexual development
  • In couples who could not achieve pregnancy despite the application of multiple assisted reproductive techniques
  • In couples who have one or more of these risks, a detailed pedigree should be drawn up by a geneticist and information about previous pregnancies, if any, should be obtained. Sick children and family members should be examined and necessary tests should be requested.

Is it possible to identify genetic problems after pregnancy occurs?

Yes. There are some screening tests that should be applied during pregnancy. (11-14 screening test – double test – triple test…) These screening tests give us information about the genetic risk in pregnancy. 11-14 when such a risk is identified. It is possible to perform a chromosome analysis of the baby by taking a biopsy from the partner of the fetus at week 16 or by taking a sample from the fluid in the baby at 16-18 weeks. In addition, ultrasonography helps us in this regard.

What are IVF prices?

IVF prices vary from centre to centre. However, the most important point to remember here is that the most costly treatment for you is the one that does not give you positive results. For this reason, it is useful to choose the best IVF centres that have proven their experience.

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Until what age can IVF be applied? How long should older patients wait?

IVF is an option for up to 44 years old. It should be noted that the likelihood decreases beyond the age of 42.

What is microinjection?

A single sperm is injected into the egg during the in vitro fertilization process known as microinjection, which results in fertilization.

What is the difference between microinjection and IVF methods?

Microinjection is used in male infertility and in vitro fertilization is used in female infertility.

Who is IVF or microinjection applied to? How is it applied?

When conventional treatment options are useless and you are unable to conceive, these procedures are used.

What are the stages of IVF treatment?

It entails stimulating the ovaries, gathering eggs, gathering sperm, fertilizing eggs with sperm, and transplanting fertilized eggs (embryo transfer).

Frequently Asked Questions in IVF

What happens if there are no sperm in the sperm analysis or a very low sperm count?

Microinjection is done if the sperm count is low. When there is no sperm in the semen, a surgical examination of the testis for sperm is required.

How are eggs collected in IVF treatment? Is it a painful procedure?

Eggs are collected under general or local anaesthesia with vaginal ultrasound. It is not a painful procedure.

How does a person feel after egg collection in IVF treatment?

Usually, he can go home sometime after the procedure and even return to work in the afternoon of the same day.

Are these therapies causing the ovarian reserve to be depleted?

IVF ovarian stimulation does not lower the reserve.

Are all the eggs fertilized?

Fertilization requires ripe eggs with normal structural characteristics. Not all eggs can successfully be fertilized. Not every fertilized egg develops into an embryo that is healthy.

After the eggs are fertilized, how are the embryos implanted in the uterus?

Transferring embryos is a straightforward process. With the use of a small plastic catheter and ultrasound guidance, the uterus is entered.

After the transfer, will any embryos remain? If so, what to do with them?

High-quality embryos left after transfer can be frozen and stored.

How is embryo selection done? How can multiple pregnancies be prevented?

Healthy embryos are selected for fresh transfer. 1-2 embryos are implanted in the uterus, depending on the age of the mother.

What can be done in case of multiple pregnancies?

First of all, it is necessary to avoid plurals more than twins. This is achieved by reducing the number of embryos to be transferred in women with a high chance of pregnancy (young, previously conceived, with more than three high-quality embryos that can be transferred). In twin pregnancies, no intervention is usually made. Embryo reduction is recommended in triplet pregnancies.

Does the chance of embryo reduction have an impact on the pregnancy’s progress?

Loss of other babies is also seen at a rate of 5%. The rate of preterm birth and low birth weight babies is higher in twins reduced from triplets to twins compared to normal twins.

Should I rest after the transfer?

The benefit of rest has not been shown. We recommend continuing a normal life.

When will the person return to their normal activities after the transfer?

He can return to normal activities other than sexual life and sports immediately after the transfer.

Does it affect a person’s sex life?

Although it is not a proven strategy, we advise waiting to get sexually active until the day of the pregnancy test.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Does the use of hormone medications during IVF raise the risk of cancer? Do these medications have any negative effects?

Cancer risk has not risen. The biggest danger is ovaries becoming overstimulated (hyperstimulation).Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

Will there be an ectopic pregnancy as a result of these treatments?

The probability of ectopic pregnancy is around 1-3%. The probability of it being both inside and outside the uterus is 0.5%. This is called a heterotopic pregnancy.Read more to know about Frequently Asked Questions in IVF.

What are the pregnancy results obtained from the frozen embryo?

These rates vary a lot from centre to centre.

Is the risk of handicap different between children born using the standard in the Vitro fertilization process and those who were conceived using frozen embryos?

There is no difference.

What is the procedure if neither pair has a medical condition yet cannot conceive?

If there is no pregnancy with IVF, detailed research should be done. If there is a reason to prevent pregnancy, it should be treated. However, there is often no obvious cause.

How long does it take to treat a child born in a test tube?

From the beginning of therapy to the day of the pregnancy test, it takes roughly 30 days.

Do IVF pregnancies have an increased risk of miscarriage?

Miscarriage risk is not increased.

How many attempts at IVF are allowed?

Pregnancy chances decline after three tries. In future efforts, pregnancy is still possible, but the likelihood is lower.

Do the sperm and eggs used belong to the spouses themselves?

Yes. The sperm and eggs which are used belong to the spouses themselves.

Can we determine gender in IVF treatment?

It can be determined, but this is not possible in many countries, including Turkey, for ethical and legal reasons.

Are there any preventative measures that may be implemented for genetic issues before conception?

Embryos can be investigated if there is a family history of genetic problems and a preimplantation diagnosis has been made.

To whom is the genetic examination of embryos recommended?

Genetic diagnosis is possible in embryos in Mediterranean anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, and many similar diseases inherited from a single gene.

Can genetic problems be identified after pregnancy occurs?

Some genetic disorders can be identified after conception through chorionic villus collection or amniocentesis.

What are the chances of IVF treatments being successful?

The quality and age of the embryo are key success factors. Over 50% of pregnancies occur before the age of 30, but after that, the incidence reduces to 10% to 15%.

What elements play a role in the IVF procedure’s success?

Success is influenced by the woman’s age, the embryo’s quality, and the uterus’s health.

What are the elements that compromise the effectiveness of IVF treatment?

Removal of sperm from the testis, problems such as adhesions, fibroids or polyps that will prevent the embryos from adhering to the uterus, clogged tubes and being full of water affect the success of in vitro fertilization negatively.

What are the potential hazards associated with IVF?

Multiple pregnancies and hyperstimulation syndrome are the main hazards.

IVF therapy requires hospitalization; is this necessary?

At no point throughout the process is hospitalization necessary.

Are there any differences between children born from IVF-achieved pregnancies and those born naturally?

There is no distinction. There may be a little increase in abnormalities when just the sperm extracted from the testicles is utilized for fertilization.