Targeted Drug Therapy in Turkey
Targeted Drug Therapy in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Targeted Drug Therapy in Turkey and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
What is targeted drug therapy?
Targeted drug therapy is a kind of cancer treatment that goes after proteins that regulate how cancer cells multiply, develop, and migrate. Precision medicine is built on this. As scientists gain more knowledge about the DNA alterations and proteins that fuel cancer, they are better equipped to develop therapies that specifically target these proteins.
With targeted therapy, specific cancer cell subtypes can be precisely identified and combated with drugs or other substances. Whether used alone or in conjunction with other therapies like conventional or traditional chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy, targeted therapy can be effective. Knowing how targeted therapy works and what to anticipate can frequently help you get ready for treatment and make wise decisions about your care if your treatment plan calls for it.
What is precision medicine?
Personalized medicine or precision medicine are other names for targeted therapy. This is due to the fact that they are designed to precisely target particular alterations or chemicals in cancer cells, and these targets can vary even among individuals who have the same type of cancer. After a biopsy or surgery, specific tumor types are evaluated for various targets in an effort to determine the most suitable course of treatment. Identifying a specific target improves the precision or personalization of matching patients with treatments.
How targeted drug therapy relates to cancer?
Typically, cancer cells differ from normal cells due to mutations in their genes. A cell’s DNA contains genes that instruct the cell on how to function. A cell doesn’t behave normally when specific gene alterations have occurred. Gene alterations in cancer cells may enable the cell to multiply and expand quickly. It is these kinds of alterations that turn it into a cancer cell. Cancer, however, comes in a wide variety of forms, and not all cancer cells are created the same. For instance, distinct gene alterations aid the growth and/or spread of breast cancer and colon cancer cells, respectively.
A person’s exact form of colon cancer may differ from another person’s even when both have the same general type of cancer (such as colon cancer). This is because cancer cells can undergo various gene mutations. Researchers have also discovered that not all malignancies begin, grow, and thrive in the same environments. As an example, in some malignancies, specific proteins or enzymes communicate with the cancer cell to instruct it to multiply and spread. These facts have triggered the creation of medications that can “target” these proteins or enzymes and stop the messages from being transmitted. Targeted medications can disable or prevent the signals that cause cancer cells to multiply, or they can tell the cancer cells to start destroying themselves.
Who are the ideal patients?
The majority of the time, a test will be required to determine whether your tumor has targets that medicine is available for. Biomarker testing involves examining your cancer to look for potential therapy targets. For biomarker testing, a biopsy may be required. During a biopsy, your doctor takes a sample of the tumor for testing. A biopsy has certain potential dangers. Depending on the tumor’s size and location, these risks change. The dangers of undergoing a biopsy for the tumor type you have will be discussed by your doctor.
Targeted therapy may not be the best course of action for every cancer patient, just like with any other cancer treatment. Using medication for your particular cancer may seem straightforward, but targeted therapy is complicated, and it may not be the best medication for you. It is crucial to be aware of:
- If the tumor lacks the particular genetic alteration or protein that the medicine targets, a targeted treatment will not be effective.
- It is possible that the tumor won’t respond to the therapy even if you have the specific genetic alteration or protein the medication targets.
- It’s possible that the treatment’s effect won’t continue forever. For instance, the medicine may not be as effective since the target may not be as crucial to the development of cancer as previously believed. Instead, cells may develop resistance to targeted therapy, which would cause the medicine to start out functioning but eventually stop. The doctor will discuss alternative treatments with you if this occurs.
Which cells does targeted drug therapy “target”?
Targeted therapies can identify and inhibit certain types of instructions delivered inside a cancer cell that instruct it to grow, or they can locate and target particular locations or substances in cancer cells.
Cancer cells that can be “targeted” by targeted therapies can be listed as follows,
- A cancer cell with an excess of a certain protein
- A protein that is found on cancer cells and not on healthy cells
- A protein on a cancer cell that has undergone some sort of mutation
- Unnatural gene (DNA) alterations in a cell
What are the types of targeted therapy?
One classification of targeted therapies can be made regarding two categories: Small molecule drugs and large-molecule drugs.
- Small molecule drugs. Once they locate a cancer cell, small molecule medications are small enough to enter it. They function by identifying and inhibiting a certain chemical inside the cell.
- Large molecule drugs. Typically, large molecular medications won’t fit inside a cell. They assault proteins or enzymes on the surface of the cell, weakening or eliminating them as a result. They are frequently referred to as a “lock and key” because the molecule acts as a key to unlock the enzyme or protein that is locked onto the surface of the cell. The medicine operates because the key fits into the lock.
Another classification of targeted therapies also exists. Targeted therapies, of which there are numerous varieties, can be used to treat many different forms of cancer. Below are various kinds along with a few usage examples.
- Angiogenesis inhibitors: They prevent the growth of new blood vessels, which feed and hydrate cancer cells. For instance, bevacizumab (many different cancers).
- Monoclonal antibodies: They can transfer medications or molecules to the cancer cell to kill it. They can also deliver molecules by themselves. Examples include cetuximab (for certain colorectal, lung, head, and neck cancers), alemtuzumab (for certain chronic leukemias), and trastuzumab (for some types of breast cancer). Monoclonal antibodies can be referred to as a type of immunotherapy because they boost the immune system.
- Proteasome inhibitors: They interfere with regular cell processes, killing cancer cells. as in bortezomib (multiple myeloma)
- Signal transduction inhibitors: They interfere with cell signals to alter how the cancer cell behaves.
What is the working mechanism of targeted drug therapy?
Targeted therapy has several functions such as,
- Block or eliminate the chemical signals that instruct cancer cells to reproduce and develop. Your body’s healthy cells rarely divide to create new cells on their own; instead, they only do so in response to powerful signals. The cell surface proteins bind to these signals, instructing the cells to divide. Just when your body requires them, a new cell is helped to form by this procedure. The proteins on the surface of some cancer cells, however, have undergone alterations, and these changes instruct the cells to divide whether or not signals are present. Some targeted medicines disrupt these proteins, preventing them from instructing the cells to divide. This procedure aids in controlling the uncontrollable growth of cancer.
- Stop creating new blood vessels to feed the cancer cells. Tumors must undergo the angiogenesis process in order to grow beyond a certain size. Angiogenesis is triggered by signals the tumor sends. Angiogenesis inhibitors are a class of targeted medications that disrupt these signals to stop the formation of a blood supply. Tumors remain tiny without a blood supply. Instead, if a tumor already has a blood supply, these treatments may cause the tumor to contract by killing the blood vessels that supply it.
- Changing proteins inside the cancer cells, causing the cells to die. When they get damaged or are no longer needed, healthy cells die in a controlled way. Yet, there are ways for cancer cells to evade this process of death. A mechanism for killing cells called apoptosis can be used by some targeted medicines to kill cancer cells.
- Not providing sufficient hormones for the growth of cancer. Some hormones are necessary for the growth of several prostate and breast cancers. A sort of targeted therapy that functions in two different ways is hormone therapy. Certain hormonal treatments stop your body from producing certain hormones. There are other factors that stop the hormones from affecting your cells, including cancer cells.
- Trigger the immune system to attack and destroy cancer cells. One factor in the survival of cancer cells is their ability to evade your immune system. In order to make it simpler for the immune system to locate and eliminate cancer cells, some targeted medicines can identify cancer cells. Some targeted medicines give your immune system a boost so that it can fight cancer more effectively.
- Transport toxins and cell-killing substances to cancer cells so they can die, but not healthy cells. A few monoclonal antibodies are mixed with agents that can destroy cells, such as poisons, chemotherapeutic medications, or radiation. The cancer cells take up the cell-killing agents when these monoclonal antibodies bind to targets on their surface, which causes the cells to die.
Which cancer types can drug therapy treat?
The investigation of numerous new targets and drugs is being done through clinical trials by researchers in the quickly expanding field of targeted treatments for cancer. A few current instances of targeted treatments are provided below. For more information, speak with your healthcare team.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is a protein that is overexpressed in 20% to 25% of breast tumors (HER2). This protein promotes the growth of tumor cells. There are numerous alternatives for targeted therapy if the cancer is HER2-positive.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
A gene known as BCR-ABL, which forms in nearly all chronic myeloid leukemia cases, is what causes the disease. The BCR-ABL protein, an enzyme, is produced as a result of this gene. Normal myeloid cells start acting like cancer cells as a result of this protein.
Epidermal growth factor receptor is a protein that colorectal cancer frequently produces in excess (EGFR). The growth of cancer may be slowed or stopped by drugs that block EGFR. In addition, there are therapies that target an NTRK fusion, block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prevent angiogenesis. This protein aids in the formation of new blood vessels.
B cells, a type of white blood cell that fights infections, are overproduced in lymphoma. Lymphomas and other B-cell leukemias have been successfully treated with medications that specifically target the enzyme that causes this overproduction of B cells.
The BRAF gene has mutations in about 50% of melanomas. There are numerous licensed BRAF inhibitors because BRAF mutations make effective therapeutic targets. A MEK inhibitor, a different sort of targeted medicine, is also authorized to treat melanoma. In order to treat cancers with a BRAF mutation, these two targeted medicines can be combined.
The pace of scientific research is causing a rapid change in targeted therapy for lung cancer. There are numerous targeted medicines approved to treat non-small cell lung cancer, and more targeted therapies are currently being investigated in clinical studies (NSCLC). They consist of:
- EGFR blockers
- Medications that affect the EGFR exon 20 insertion
- ALK blockers
- Drugs that target the ROS1 fusion
- Drugs that target KRAS G12C mutations
- Medications targeting NTRK fusion
- Drugs for BRAF V600E mutations
- Drugs targeting MET exon 14 skipping
- Drugs targeting RET fusion
How often does the therapy is received?
Therapy drugs can be delivered in the form of pills or capsules, which are small-molecule medications. Typically, monoclonal antibodies are injected with a needle into a blood vein. The type of cancer, its stage, the sort of targeted therapy you receive, and how your body responds to it will all influence how frequently and how long you receive the therapy. Every day, once a week, or once a month, you might receive treatment.
A few targeted treatments are administered in cycles. A cycle consists of a treatment phase and a recovery phase. Your body has a chance to recoup and create new, healthy cells during the interval of rest.
What are the disadvantages of targeted drug therapy?
Targeted therapy can make cancer cells resistant to it. Resistance may occur if the target alters and the targeted therapy is unable to interact with it. Perhaps it can occur when cancer cells discover fresh, non-targeted ways to flourish. Due to resistance, combined targeted therapies or conventional cancer therapies like chemotherapy and radiation may be more effective in treating cancer.
Drug development for some targets is challenging. The cause of this difficulty can be the target’s composition, role within the cell or both may be the cause.
What are the side effects of the therapy?
When targeted therapy was initially created, researchers believed it would be less harmful than chemotherapy. Yet, they have discovered that focused therapy can have negative side effects as well. Your body’s response to the targeted therapy you receive and its nature will determine any adverse effects you experience. The side effects can be listed as,
- Liver issues
- Problems with blood clotting and wound healing
- High blood pressure
- Mouth sores
- Changes in natural nail color
- Skin issues including a rash or dry skin
The walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or gallbladder can occasionally develop holes.
However, many of these adverse effects are treatable with medications. These medications could either treat or stop the side effects from happening. Following treatment, most side effects of targeted therapy disappear.
How to understand if the therapy works?
You will have frequent visits with your doctor while you are undergoing targeted therapy. He or she will examine you physically and inquire about your health. You will undergo medical examinations, including blood tests, x-rays, and other scans. Regular check-ups and testing will enable the doctor to assess the efficacy of the medication.
Can other cancer treatment types be combined with targeted drug therapy?
Targeted therapy is frequently used in conjunction with additional therapies including surgery, radiation therapy, or additional medications like chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or immunotherapy. For instance, the combination of targeted therapy with immunotherapy has demonstrated a synergistic antitumor impact in an increasing number of preclinical investigations and clinical trials, suggesting a potential prospect for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
What is the difference between chemotherapy and targeted therapy?
Drugs used in targeted therapy are formally categorized as chemotherapy, much like other medications used to treat cancer. However, unlike traditional chemotherapy (chemo) treatments, targeted therapy medications don’t function in the same way. Drugs that are specifically targeted focus on certain changes that distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells. Because of this, they function differently from chemotherapy in two important ways:
These medications affect cancer cells due to their specific action, which largely leaves normal, healthy cells unaffected. Traditional chemotherapy can harm healthy, normal cells in addition to harming and killing cancer cells since it is cytotoxic to the majority of cells.
Drugs with specific targets frequently stop cancer cells from duplicating themselves. They can therefore aid in preventing a cancer cell from proliferating and creating fresh cancer cells. Yet, conventional chemotherapy only eliminates cancer cells that have already developed.
What is the cost of targeted drug therapy in Turkey?
You may ask yourself “What is the cost of targeted drug therapy in Turkey?”. The monthly cost of targeted drug therapy in Turkey might reach tens of thousands of dollars. It usually costs around $500,000 per treatment. Nonetheless, costs can differ depending on the medication’s type, administration method, source, and length of use.
Targeted Drug Therapy in Turkey Summary (Price, Duration Time, Hospitalization)
|Operation Number||Depends on the stage of your cancer and the effectiveness of previous operations||Time to return to work||As soon as you feel ready|
|Operation Time||Depends on the aim of the treatment, how the cancer responds, and any side effects you have||Recovery||2+ years|
|Anaesthesia||–||Persistence of Results||May not be permanent|
|Sensitivity Time||Few weeks/months||Hospital Stay||–|