Hormone Therapy in Turkey
Hormone Therapy in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Hormone Therapy in Turkey and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
What is hormone therapy?
A type of cancer treatment known as hormone therapy involves the removal, blocking, or addition of particular hormones to the body. Endocrine therapy or hormonal therapy are other names for it. The fact that some cancers use the body’s natural hormones to fuel their growth is a major factor in why hormone therapy may be advised. It’s crucial to understand that hormone therapy used to treat cancer differs from hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT).
Doctors may advise menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), also known as postmenopausal hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy, to treat common menopause symptoms as well as long-term biological changes, like bone loss, brought on by the body’s declining levels of the natural hormones progesterone and estrogen both during and after menopause.
What are hormones?
Chemicals that the body naturally produces are called hormones. Hormones aid in regulating the activity of specific cells or organs as they circulate through the bloodstream. These include a person’s ability to grow and develop, as well as their capacity for reproduction, mood, and the conversion of food into energy. Glands produce hormones. The thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testicles are among the main hormone-producing glands. The endocrine system of the body, which includes all hormones in the body, is made up of these glands.
What is the goal of hormone therapy?
Depending on the type of cancer and how far it has gone, hormone therapy may be used to treat it. Occasionally, preventing cancer from returning after treatment is the main objective. Another objective would be to halt or slow the spread of cancer. Additionally, hormone treatment may be used to treat or manage the symptoms of cancer. An essential component of cancer care and treatment is minimizing side effects. Palliative care or supportive care is the name for it. Ask your doctor why he or she thinks you should undergo a particular hormone therapy and how it will fit into your overall cancer treatment strategy.
How it acts?
Hormones are necessary for the growth of several cancer cells. Cancer growth might be halted by inhibiting the action of these hormones. This can occur in a few different ways:
- Stop the hormones from working. Certain hormones can bind to “receptors” on the surface of cells, which then cause the cells to become active. The hormone is prevented from attaching to its receptor by inhibiting the receptor. The hormone cannot bind to and activate the cell if its usual location on the cell is already occupied.
- Inhibiting the body’s hormone production. Using medicine to stop the hormone’s production or surgery from removing the organ that produces it are two ways to prevent the body from stimulating the hormone. For instance, removing the ovaries reduces the production of estrogen.
- Removing or altering the hormone receptors on cells. This prevents the hormone from attaching to the cell receptor and activating it, which renders the hormone inactive.
How hormone therapy is different from other types of therapies?
Due to the circulatory nature of the hormones that hormone therapy targets, it is regarded as a systemic treatment. Drugs used in hormone treatment search for and target hormones all across the body. This distinguishes it from treatments that target only a specific portion of the body, such as most types of surgery and radiation therapy. Because they only affect one portion of the body, these treatments are known as local treatments.
How hormone therapy is used to treat cancer?
Doctors frequently prescribe hormone therapy in conjunction with other cancer treatments like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. This also indicates that hormone therapy can be used in combination with other cancer treatment techniques.
Hormone therapy alone may be employed if a person’s other medical conditions prevent them from receiving such treatments. Hormone therapy can be applied in various contexts and at various times. These consist of the following:
- Prior to tumor-reduction surgery or radiation therapy. Neoadjuvant treatment is the term for this.
- Following additional cancer therapies, to lower the likelihood of recurrence. The term for this is adjuvant therapy.
- For recurrent cancer. Recurrent cancer is the term used to describe cancer that returns after therapy.
- For metastatic cancer. It is the term used to describe cancer that has migrated to other body locations.
What are the cancer types that can be treated with hormone therapy?
Numerous cancers can be controlled by hormone levels. Hormone treatment is frequently used to treat the following cancers:
- Breast cancer. The growth of breast cancer frequently depends on the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. “Hormone receptor positive” tumors are those that have receptors that these hormones can bind to. The hormones can be blocked to lessen the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence.
- Prostate cancer. Androgen hormones are often what fuel prostate cancer growth. Testosterone is the most prevalent androgen. Reducing androgen levels can aid in slowing the spread of cancer.
- Thyroid cancer. Thyroid hormone therapy is typically required for patients with thyroid cancer undergoing surgical treatment. The therapy may limit the growth of any leftover cancer cells in the body in addition to providing the hormone that the body needs.
Other cancer types that are less frequent may also benefit from hormone therapy. Examples include:
- Adrenal cancer. A tumor in the adrenal gland may release too many hormones. Before, during, or after other treatments, the doctor may prescribe a variety of drugs to manage the levels of these hormones.
- Neuroendocrine cancer. Neuroendocrine tumor growth could be slowed down by hormone treatments (NET). Additionally, they can be used to manage the symptoms brought on by the hormones that a NET may emit.
- Tumor of the pituitary gland. It’s possible that people with pituitary tumors don’t produce enough of the necessary hormones. To replenish the various hormones for which the pituitary gland is responsible, hormone therapy can be required.
- Uterine cancer. Hormone therapy can decrease the proliferation of specific uterine cancer cell types that are progesterone- and estrogen-sensitive.
In what ways can a hormone therapy be given?
There are numerous techniques to administer hormone treatment. They consist of the following:
- Oral hormonal treatment. Some hormone therapies are available in pill, capsule, or liquid form that can be taken orally. A doctor can write a prescription for a variety of oral hormone therapy, which can then be purchased from a pharmacy and taken regularly at home. If you have any concerns about how to take your prescription at home, speak with your medical team.
- Injection of hormones. At this point, hormone therapy will be administered through shots. These injections could be given to you in your arm, leg, hip, or belly. They might be injected under the skin or delivered through a muscle. Injections of hormones can be administered in a clinic or medical office. Your medical team may also instruct you on how to administer the injections at home.
- Surgery. Sometimes it is advised to have surgery to remove an organ that produces a particular hormone. For instance, as part of the treatment for prostate cancer, the testicles may need to be removed in order to lower testosterone levels. Bilateral orchiectomy is the medical term for this treatment. Another illustration is the surgical removal of the ovaries to limit estrogen production as part of the management of breast cancer. The term for this is ovarian ablation. A hospital or specialized medical facility is where surgical ablation is performed.
What are the classes of hormone therapy?
By inhibiting estrogen receptors in breast tissue, an antiestrogen or estrogen blocker functions. While estrogen may not be the direct cause of breast cancer, it is necessary for some breast cancers to progress. The estrogen-dependent cancer cells might not be able to survive if estrogen is prevented.
Estrogen is primarily created in menopausal women by the adrenal glands’ conversion of androgens (sex hormones) into estrogens. This process is caused by an enzyme called aromatase. As a result of aromatase inhibitors, the body produces less estrogen.
To grow, most prostate cancers require testosterone. The testes and adrenal glands produce the androgen testosterone. The testicles can be surgically removed to cease the production of testosterone, or it can be stopped with medicine. Anti-androgens function by preventing testosterone from binding to the prostate cancer cells’ testosterone receptors, which are blocked by anti-androgens. Cancer cells may either cease growing altogether or grow more slowly in the absence of testosterone. This therapy is sometimes referred to as ADT or androgen deprivation therapy. To clarify, in androgen deprivation therapy one can remove the testicles, take female sex hormones, or take antiandrogen medications. This process is also known as androgen suppression and androgen ablation.
Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist (LHRH Agonist)
The pituitary gland produces the luteinizing hormone, which aids in the production of testosterone by the testicles. LHRH agonists prevent the production of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. As a result, guys have less testosterone. The cancer cells may then develop more slowly or stop developing altogether. These are referred to as blockers of gonadotropin-releasing hormones at times (GnRH blockers).
What is hormone readiness assessment?
A hormone readiness assessment is made to make sure that you, as a patient, are prepared for undergoing hormone therapy. The length of the evaluation period is determined by the medical professional, clinic procedures, and your demands. If a person has problems with their physical, mental, or substance use, the assessment may take longer. These worries should be taken into account while developing a treatment strategy even though they are not obstacles to hormone therapy. Typically, your doctor will do an examination. Additionally, you’ll probably be required to complete some laboratory tasks, including a blood test. In this assessment, you will be asked some questions such as:
- Your medical background (current and past medical and mental health conditions, surgical history, medications, allergies, smoking status, exercise, nutrition, family history, etc.)
- Your comprehension of the long-term dangers connected to hormone therapy
What are the factors that should be taken into account to plan hormone therapy?
Numerous factors influence the type of hormone therapy recommended for you as well as the dosage and frequency of treatments. These consist of the following:
- The cancer type
- Cancer’s stage
- The likelihood of cancer recurrence or the length of time since the initial diagnosis
- The kind of cancer therapy you’ve had or are presently undergoing
- Adverse effects you encounter
- Whether menopause has started or not
Some people may need hormone therapy for a short period of time. Some people will use hormone therapy for a long time, even their entire lives. Treatment with hormones might be daily, monthly, yearly, or as necessary.
People can use daily hormone therapy, for instance, for five to ten years if they have specific forms of breast cancer. Intermittent hormone therapy may be given to men with prostate cancer. This implies that they will undergo hormone therapy at predetermined intervals, followed by a brief break from the regimen. Hormone therapy is frequently a regular aspect of a person’s life after thyroid cancer treatment. Ask your medical team why they think a certain hormone therapy regimen is best for you and what to expect.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of hormone therapy?
According to a recent study, it is not advised to use hormones frequently or as a preventive precaution. Consider carefully weighing the benefits and drawbacks of hormone therapy with your doctor if you are experiencing severe menopause-related issues. If you choose to use hormones, the procedure should be completed quickly and with the least amount of hormones. Do not forget to beware of the side effects.
What are the side effects of the therapy?
Hormone therapy can result in unfavorable side effects because it inhibits your body’s ability to produce hormones or meddles with how they behave. Depending on the hormone therapy you receive and how your body reacts to it, you may experience adverse effects. Additionally, some adverse effects are different for men and women.
If you receive hormone therapy for prostate cancer the side effects that you can experience are as follows,
- Hot flashes
- Weakened bones
- Lack of interest in sexual interaction
- Nausea, diarrhea
- Swollen, sensitive breasts
If you receive hormone therapy for breast cancer the side effects that you can experience are as follows,
- Hot flashes
- Dryness in vagina
- Irregular menstrual cycles if you haven’t yet reached menopause
- Loss of interest in sexual interaction
- Mood swings
Both men and women may be more at risk for developing osteoporosis as a result of the drop in the body’s natural hormone levels. This negative effect may be reduced with bisphosphonate medication. Additionally, your doctor could advise taking preventative measures to lessen the likelihood or severity of osteoporosis. This may entail engaging in weight-bearing activity, boosting calcium and vitamin D consumption through food or supplements, and abstaining from cigarette and alcohol usage (which increases osteoporosis risk).
How to understand whether the therapy works or not?
Depending on the cancer type being treated, the requirements to detect whether the therapy is working or not will differ. A lot of patients will undergo imaging tests to determine how the tumor is reacting (such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans) (shrunk, stayed the same, or grown).
There are several tumor forms that can be monitored using a particular “tumor marker.” A blood test can be used to measure a tumor marker, which is either produced directly by the tumor or by the body in response to the tumor. One would anticipate a drop in the tumor marker level if the treatment is effective. In some circumstances, a decrease in a patient’s symptoms may be able to indicate whether or not the treatment is actually decreasing the tumor. Your tumor marker values should be discussed with your healthcare practitioner.
What is the cost of hormone therapy in Turkey?
You may wonder “What is the cost of hormone therapy in Turkey?”. As with many oncology cases, the price of the therapy depends on many factors such as at what stage of cancer you are, how long your treatment continues, how many follow-up or check-up visits you had, and how many tests you have undergone. In order to calculate the cost of hormone therapy in Turkey click below:
Hormone Therapy in Turkey Summary (Price, Duration Time, Hospitalization)
|Operation Number||Depends on the effectiveness of the first treatment||Time to return to work||–|
|Operation Time||3+ months||Recovery||2+ years|
|Anaesthesia||General Anaesthesia||Persistence of Results||Temporary, it depends on the risk of your cancer coming back and how many side effects you get|
|Sensitivity Time||–||Hospital Stay||–|