Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey

Heart Valve Replacement In Turkey

Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is the definiton of heart valve?

Heart valves ensure that blood travels through the heart in the right direction. The mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, and aortic valve are the four heart valves. Each valve has flaps that are referred to as cusps for the aortic and pulmonary valves and leaflets for the mitral and tricuspid valves. To clarify,

Tricuspid: Allows your right atrium (upper chamber), where oxygen-poor blood is located, to flow into your right ventricle (lower chamber).

Pulmonary: Permits the movement of oxygen-deficient blood from your right ventricle (lower chamber) to your pulmonary artery, which transports blood to your lungs for oxygenation.

Mitral: Enables the movement of oxygen-rich blood from your left atrium (upper chamber) to your left ventricle when it returns from your lungs (lower chamber)

Aortic: Enables the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle (lower chamber) to the aorta, which carries the blood to the whole body.

Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey

Each heartbeat should cause these flaps to open and close once. Blood flow via the heart to the body is disrupted when valves don’t open or close appropriately.

What is heart valve surgery?

Heart valve surgery is a treatment used to treat heart valve problems. One or more of the four heart valves are malfunctioning due to heart valve disease. In heart valve surgery, the damaged or unhealthy heart valve or valves are repaired or replaced. Heart valves can be repaired or replaced surgically using various techniques, such as open heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery. The kind of heart valve surgery required will depend on your age, general health, and the type and degree of your heart valve condition, among other things. The types of surgery are as follows,

Heart valve repair surgery: Valve repair surgery fixes the broken or malfunctioning valve while conserving a significant amount of the patient’s own tissue. Although repair surgery can address issues with the aortic and tricuspid valves, the mitral valve is the most frequently treated valve.

Heart valve replacement surgery: Surgery to replace the malfunctioning valve with a mechanical (made of metal or carbon) or biological (from pig, cow, or human tissue) valve. Because every valve replacement is biocompatible, your body won’t reject the new valve.

What are the symptoms that require a heart valve replacement?

The following are some symptoms of valvular heart disease:

  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Cyanosis
  • Chest discomfort
  • Fluid retention, particularly in the lower limbs

Heart valve issues typically fall into one of two categories, narrowing of a valve (stenosis) or a valve leak that causes reverse blood flow (regurgitation).

  • Stenosis forces the muscle to work harder. Because of this, the muscle gets exhausted easily. On the other hand, valves that leak can also be a concern. A valve might not close completely, leaving room for blood to flow backward. Another name for this condition is regurgitation. 
  • If your heart valve disease affects your heart’s capacity to pump blood, you may require heart valve surgery. Your doctor could advise regular monitoring of the heart valve disease if you don’t have any symptoms or signs or if your condition is minor. Symptom management may be aided by medication and lifestyle changes.
  • Sometimes, even in the absence of symptoms, doctors will advise heart valve surgery. Doctors may do heart surgery for another problem while also replacing or repairing your heart valves. You and your doctor should talk about whether you are a candidate for heart valve surgery and whether minimally invasive heart surgery is an option. Your doctor will talk to you about whether a heart valve replacement or repair is better for your condition.
  • As it retains your heart valve and might preserve heart function, doctors frequently advise heart valve repair when it is possible. The best course of action, however, is occasionally valve replacement because if the damage is too severe the only solution will be completely replacing the damaged valve.

What are the types of replacement valves?

Ineffective valves are replaced with mechanical and biological valves. Mechanical valves are man-made parts that serve the same function as a heart valve. They are made of materials that the human body can tolerate well, such as carbon and polyester. They have a lifespan of 10 to 20 years. Blood clots, however, are one of the dangers connected to mechanical valves. If you get a mechanical heart valve to lower your risk of stroke, you’ll need to take blood thinners for the rest of your life.

Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey

Bioprosthetic valves made from human or animal tissue are also known as biological valves. Biologic heart valves come in three different varieties such as:

  • Tissue from the heart of a human donor is used to create an allograft or homograft.
  • Pig tissue is used to create porcine valves. This valve may be implanted either with or without a stent, or a frame.
  • A cow’s tissue is used to create a bovine valve. Silicone rubber makes the connection to your heart.

Your chance of getting blood clots isn’t affected by biological valves. This indicates that you probably won’t need to take anti-clotting medications for the rest of your life. A bioprosthetic may eventually need to be replaced because it doesn’t last as long as a mechanical valve.

Your doctor will base his or her recommendation for your heart valve type on:

  • Your age
  • General well-being
  • Your ability to take anticoagulant medicines
  • The severity of the illness

What are the types of heart valve replacement surgery?

Aortic Valve Replacement

Aortic valve replacement surgery is the most common among all other types of surgery for heart valve replacement. On the left side of the heart, the aortic valve performs the function of an outflow valve. Its function is to open a passageway for blood to leave the left ventricle, the heart’s primary pumping chamber. In order to prevent blood from leaking back into the left ventricle, it must also close. If you have a congenital problem or condition that results in stenosis or regurgitation, you might need surgery on your aortic valve. Bicuspid valves are the most prevalent form of congenital malformation. The aortic valve typically consists of three leaflets, which are separate pieces of tissue. A tricuspid valve is what this is. Aortic valve replacement surgery has a high survival rate, according to a recent study.

Alternatives to Aortic Valve Replacement

The best course of action for aortic valve issues is an aortic valve replacement. The only time other treatments are employed is when open heart surgery is deemed too hazardous. Alternatives that could be used are as follows,

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): It involves guiding the replacement valve into place via the blood arteries as opposed to a significant chest incision.

Aortic valve balloon valvuloplasty: Using a balloon, a valve is expanded during valvuloplasty.

Sutureless aortic valve replacement: It reduces time spent on a heart-lung machine by not securing the valve with stitches (sutures).

Mitral Valve Replacement

The left side of the heart is where the mitral valve is situated. As an inflow valve, it is used. Allowing blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle is its primary function. If the valve doesn’t fully open or completely close, surgery can be necessary. Blood entry may be challenging if the valve is too small. As a result, it could back up and put pressure on the lungs. Blood can seep back into the lungs when the valve doesn’t shut properly. This could be brought on by an inherited flaw, an infection, or a degenerative condition.

To treat this either a biological valve or a metal artificial valve will be used to replace the damaged valve. Despite the fact that you must take blood thinners, the metal valve will last a lifetime. The biological valve has a lifespan of 15 to 20 years, and you won’t need to take any blood-thinning medicine during that time. The survival rate is similar to aortic valve replacement.

 

Double Valve Replacement

The mitral and aortic valves, as well as the entire left side of the heart, are both replaced during a double valve replacement. The mortality rate is a little greater for this kind of surgery because it is less frequent than the others.

 

Pulmonary Valve Replacement

The right ventricle, one of the heart’s chambers, and the pulmonary artery, which transports blood to the lungs for oxidation, are divided by the pulmonary valve. Its function is to open the pulmonary artery, which directs blood from the heart to the lungs. Stenosis, which limits blood flow, is typically the cause of the need for pulmonary valve replacement. A congenital abnormality, an infection, or carcinoid syndrome can all lead to stenosis.

 

The rate of risk of these above-mentioned surgery types depends on:

  • Age
  • General health condition
  • Heart function
  • Other medical conditions the patient has

What is the procedure?

  • Under general anesthesia, minimally invasive or traditional surgical methods are used to replace heart valves.

Minimally invasive heart valve surgery: Low-risk heart valve surgery is a more minute cut (3-4 inches or smaller). The length of your incision may be shorter and your risk of infection may be lower if you undergo less invasive surgery.

Traditional or open heart surgery: An incision (6 to 8 inches) through your breastbone is required for traditional or open heart surgery. The incision for traditional surgery extends from your neck to your navel.

  • Techniques include robotic-assisted surgery and endoscopic or keyhole procedures (also known as port access, thoracoscopic, or video-assisted surgery).

Transcatheter: Your healthcare professional will do the procedure without creating a cut in your chest by inserting a catheter into a larger artery, such as the femoral artery in your groin.

Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey

  • Your heart must be motionless for the surgeon to successfully remove the damaged valve and replace it with a new one.
  • You’ll be put on a bypass machine so that during surgery, your lungs and blood flow through your body are maintained. This machine will be responsible for the function of the heart and lungs during the surgery.
  • The valves will be taken out and replaced through incisions made in your aorta by your surgeon.

What to expect after the operation?

  • Your medical team may transfer you to an intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery so they can closely monitor you. You will then be in a typical room.
  • You might spend five to seven days in the hospital. Your blood pressure and heart rate will be monitored by devices that are attached to you.
  • You can have tubes for fluid drainage coming out of your chest.
  • As soon as you are able after surgery, your doctor will advise you to eat, drink, and do some exercise.
  • You can gradually increase your distance by beginning with short walks in your room or down the corridor.
  • Your doctor could suggest that you enroll in cardiac rehab, an exercise program that is closely watched.

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What are the risks of heart valve replacement surgery?

Surgery always carries some risk. Before your surgery, your cardiologist and surgeon will discuss these risks with you.

Risks of heart valve surgery include:

  • Heart attack
  • Heart failure
  • Arrythmia. You could require a pacemaker if your heart beats abnormally.
  • Stroke
  • Infection
  • Bleeding

Rate of risk depends on these factors:

  • Age
  • Other medical issues the patient has
  • How many procedures you have in a single operation

What is the recovery period after the operation?

During the initial days following a heart valve replacement, medical personnel will provide pain medication as required and regularly evaluate your blood pressure, respiration, and heart function. Depending on your rate of healing and the type of surgery that was done, full recovery could take a few weeks or even several months. The main concern just after surgery is an infection, therefore it’s crucial to keep your incisions sterile. Always get in touch with your doctor right once if you experience symptoms of an infection, such as:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Discomfort
  • Swelling at the wound site
  • Increased wound drainage

The timing of your recovery will be determined by your doctor during follow-up visits, which are crucial. Make sure you are prepared with a support system for the period after your surgery. As you heal, ask family and friends to assist you around the house and drive you to doctor’s appointments.

When you initially go home, you should take it easy, but over the next few weeks, you should begin to gradually resume your regular activities. You’ll receive detailed guidance about any side effects you should be prepared for during your recovery, and any activities you should avoid. Depending on your profession, you’ll likely require 6 to 12 weeks off from work and won’t be able to drive for about 6 weeks. The full recovery takes about 4 to 8 weeks in general however some of the factors that should be taken into account are:

  • Which of the valves was changed or fixed
  • The general state of health before the procedure
  • How your provider managed to get through to your heart (large incision, small incision, or through a vein).
  • The procedure’s results
  • How well you take care of yourself following surgery.

What is the cost of heart valve replacement in Turkey?

You may ask yourself “What is the cost of heart valve replacement in Turkey?”. The cost of heart valve replacement in Turkey is around $170,000.

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Heart Valve Replacement in Turkey Summary (Price, Duration Time, Hospitalization)

Operation Number 3-4 Time to return to work 6-12 weeks
Operation Time 1-2 hours Recovery 4-8 weeks
Anesthesia General Anesthesia Persistence of Results 10-20 years
Sensitivity Time 6 weeks Hospital Stay 5-7 days
Price 170,000 EUR