Colon Cancer Treatment in Turkey
Colon Cancer Treatment in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Colon Cancer Treatment in Turkey. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
What is colon cancer?
The large intestine, or colon, the long tube that helps move digested food to your rectum and out of your body, is where colon (colorectal) cancer begins. Certain polyps or growths in your colon’s inner lining can become colon cancer. Healthcare professionals use screening tests to prevent precancerous polyps from developing into cancerous tumors. The spread of colon cancer to other parts of your body is possible if it is not recognized or treated. Fewer people are dying from colon cancer as a result of screening tests, early diagnosis, and innovative types of therapy.
What causes colon cancer?
Like all cancers, colon cancer results from unchecked cell growth and division. Every cell in your body is continuously dividing, growing, and dying. It is how you keep your body healthy and functioning properly. The cells that line your colon and rectum in colon cancer continue to proliferate and divide even though they should be dying. Your colon polyps could be the source of these malignant cells. Such risk factors consist of a variety of medical issues, including genetic illnesses, and lifestyle decisions. Knowing the risk factors may help you decide whether you need to discuss your risk of colon (colorectal) cancer with a healthcare professional.
What are the risk factors that trigger colon cancer?
- Smoking: Consuming tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes and chewing tobacco, raises your risk of developing colon cancer.
- Alcohol consumption: You should limit your alcohol consumption because the chance of developing cancer can rise with even occasional alcohol intake.
- Being overweight: Consuming a lot of high-fat, high-calorie food can make you gain weight and make you more likely to have colon cancer.
- Consuming a diet high in processed and red meat: Processed meats include bacon, sausage, and lunchmeat. Health professionals advise limiting your intake of red meat and processed meat to two servings per week.
- Lack of physical activity: Colon cancer risk may be lowered by engaging in any type of physical activity.
What are the indicators of colon cancer?
Having colon cancer without experiencing symptoms is a possibility. You might not be certain if changes in your body are symptoms of colon cancer if you do have symptoms. This is due to the fact that some colon cancer symptoms are also present in less serious illnesses. Typical signs of colon cancer include:
- Your feces (poop) contains blood: Speak with a medical professional if you observe blood in the toilet after you defecate or wipe, or if your feces appear dark or brilliant red. It’s crucial to keep in mind that having blood in your stool does not indicate colon cancer. Several conditions can alter the appearance of your feces, including hemorrhoids, anal tears, and consuming beets. Nonetheless, it’s best to consult a doctor whenever you notice blood in or on your stool.
- Consistent changes in your bowel habits: If you experience frequent constipation, diarrhea, or the feeling that you still need to poop after going to the bathroom, consult a healthcare professional.
- Pain in the stomach: If you experience severe stomach pain that has no known cause, doesn’t go away, or hurts a lot, consult a healthcare professional. Several factors can cause stomach discomfort, but it’s advisable to consult a healthcare professional if it’s uncommon or persistent.
- Bloated stomach: Like stomach ache, numerous factors could cause you to feel bloated. Speak with a doctor if your bloating persists for over a week, worsens, or you experience other symptoms like vomiting or blood in or on your stool.
- Unexpected weight loss: This is a significant decrease in body weight that occurs even when you are not actively attempting to lose weight.
- Vomiting: If you frequently vomit for no apparent reason or if it lasts more than 24 hours, consult a doctor.
- Feelings of exhaustion and difficulty in breathing: Anemia symptoms include being exhausted and having trouble breathing. An indication of colon cancer may be anemia.
Who are at risk?
Colon cancer is more likely to affect men and those born with the gender given to them than it affects women and those born with the gender allocated to them. Those 50 and older are often affected by colon cancer. However, over the past 15 years, the number of patients with colon cancer in the age range of 20 to 49 has risen by roughly 1.5% per year. Medical experts are unsure of why this is taking place.
Also if you have the following medical conditions you may be at risk.
- Inflammatory bowel disease: Chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two inflammatory bowel diseases that can cause inflammation in the colon lining and increase the risk of colon cancer in sufferers. Inflammatory bowel disease that affects significant portions of your colon for more than seven years increases your risk.
- Conditions that are inherited: The risk of developing colon cancer may be increased by conditions like Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis. If you inherit a cancer-causing gene, you may develop colon cancer. The chance of acquiring colon cancer may be higher if a close relative already has the disease. Your biological parents, siblings, and offspring make up your immediate family. If anyone in your immediate biological family has colon cancer before age 45, your risk may increase.
- A family history of polyps. Polyps are stalked, tiny growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane and is typically benign. An advanced polyp in a parent, sibling, or kid may raise your risk of developing colon cancer. Large polyps can be advanced polyps. If a medical pathologist notices specific changes in a polyp when they examine it under a microscope that are indicators the polyp might contain malignant cells, they may classify the polyp as progressed.
- Numerous polyps. Many colon polyps, such as adenomas, serrated polyps, or other types of polyps, raise the risk of colon polyps and colon cancer in many cases. A propensity for having several colon polyps may run in the family.
How colon cancer spreads?
The mucous membrane, muscle, and tissue are all layers that make up your colon wall. The mucosa, the colon’s innermost lining, is where colon cancer first develops. It is made up of cells that secrete mucus and other fluids. A colon polyp could develop if these cells alter or mutate. Colon polyps may develop into cancer over time. (Cancer often develops in a colon polyp after around 10 years.) Cancer invades your colon’s outer layer as well as layers of muscle and tissue if it is not found and/or not treated in time. Via your lymph nodes or blood vessels, colon cancer may possibly spread to other organs in your body.
-How to diagnose colon cancer?
Colon cancer screening
To check for indicators of colon cancer or noncancerous colon polyps, doctors advise various screening tests for healthy individuals with no symptoms or signs. The best opportunity for a cure is found when colon cancer is discovered in its earliest stages. The chance of dying from colon cancer has been found to decrease with screening. In general, doctors advise that screenings start around age 45 for those with an average risk of colon cancer. But, those at higher risk—for example, those with a family history of colon cancer or African-American heritage—should think about screening earlier.
There are various screening options, each having advantages and disadvantages. You and your doctor can determine which tests are right for you after discussing your options. Polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy for screening in order to prevent them from developing into cancer. Your doctor might advise one or more of the following tests and procedures if your symptoms and signs point to a possible case of colon cancer:
- The interior of your colon is examined with a scope (colonoscopy). The whole colon and rectum may be seen during a colonoscopy thanks to the use of a long, flexible, and thin tube connected to a camera and monitor. Your doctor may insert surgical instruments into the tube if any worrisome regions are discovered in order to extract tissue samples (biopsies) for analysis and remove polyps. testing with blood.
- Blood tests. Although you cannot detect colon cancer using a blood test, your doctor may perform blood tests on you to gather information about your general health, such as kidney and liver function tests.
A substance that is occasionally created by colon tumors may be detected in your blood by your doctor (carcinoembryonic antigen, or CEA). Your doctor may be able to determine your prognosis and whether your cancer is responding to therapy by monitoring the level of CEA in your blood over time.
What are the stages of colon cancer?
Colon cancer progresses through five stages. Three of the four stages have a total of three substages. The following are included in the stage system for colon cancer:
Stage 0: Also known as carcinoma in situ by healthcare professionals. When they do, the mucosa, the innermost layer of your intestinal wall, is what they are referring to when they mention aberrant or precancerous cells.
Stage I: Stage I colon cancer has penetrated your intestine’s wall but hasn’t progressed past the muscular coat or into nearby lymph nodes.
Stage II: Cancer has spread deeper into the intestine’s wall, but it hasn’t yet reached the lymph nodes in the area. Colon cancer in Stage II can be one of three types:
- Stage IIA: The majority of your colon wall has been penetrated by cancer, but cancer has not spread to the outer layer of the wall.
- Stage IIB: In stage IIB, the colon wall’s outer layer or the wall itself has been affected by cancer. An adjacent organ has been affected by cancer in stage IIC. At this stage, your lymph nodes have been affected by colon cancer.
Your lymph nodes have been affected by colon cancer at this stage. Three substages of Stage III colon cancer exist, similar to Stage II.
- Stage IIIA: One to four lymph nodes have been affected by cancer that has spread to your colon’s first or second layers of the wall.
- Stage IIIB: Cancer only affects one to three lymph nodes but more layers of your colon wall. Stage IIIB colon cancer also includes diseases that damage fewer layers of the colon wall but have progressed to four or more lymph nodes.
- Stage IIIC: You have cancer in four or more lymph nodes as well as the outermost or next-to-outermost layer of your colon. Stage IIIC colon cancer also includes cancer that has progressed to at least one lymph node and an organ nearby.
Stage IV: Cancer has metastasized, or spread, to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or ovaries:
- Stage IVA: At this point, cancer has migrated to one or more lymph nodes that are farther or further away from your colon.
- Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to other lymph nodes and/or distant organs.
- Stage IVC: Carcinoma in stage IVC affects abdominal tissue, lymph nodes, and distant organs.
How the stage of colon cancer is determined?
Your doctor can suggest testing to find out the extent (stage) of your colon cancer if you’ve been diagnosed with it. Staging aids in identifying the treatments that are best for you. Imaging techniques include chest, pelvic, and abdominal CT scans are examples of staging testing. Your cancer stage may not always be fully diagnosed until after colon cancer surgery. Roman numerals from 0 to IV are used to denote the various stages of colon cancer, with the lowest stages denoting cancer that have only affected the lining of the colon. By stage IV, the cancer is regarded as progressing and has metastasized (spread to different parts of the body).
What is the colon cancer treatment in Turkey?
Your specific circumstances, including the location, stage, and other health issues affecting you will determine which treatments are most likely to be helpful. Surgery to remove the malignancy is typically part of colon cancer treatment. Moreover, various therapies including chemotherapy and radiation therapy could be suggested.
Mainly the treatment method depends on whether the colon cancer is in the beginner or advanced stage.
Early-stage Colon Cancer
- During a colonoscopy, polyps are removed (polypectomy). Depending on its size, location, degree of containment within a polyp, and stage, your doctor might be able to entirely remove your cancer during a colonoscopy.
- Mucosal resection using endoscopy. A method known as an endoscopic mucosal resection may be used to remove larger polyps during a colonoscopy utilizing specialized equipment to remove the polyp and a small portion of the colon’s inner lining.
- Laparoscopic surgery (Minimally invasive surgery) . It may be used to remove polyps that are resistant to colonoscopy removal. With this surgery, your surgeon works through several tiny incisions in your abdominal wall, inserting tools with attached cameras that show your colon on a video monitor during the operation. In the vicinity of the malignancy, the surgeon may additionally obtain samples from nearby lymph nodes.
Advanced-stage Colon Cancer
Your surgeon might advise the following if cancer has invaded or passed through your colon:
- The partial colectomy. The surgical technique involves the removal of the cancerous portion of your colon along with a margin of healthy tissue on either side of the tumor. Frequently, your surgeon can reattach the healthy sections of your colon or rectum. A minimally invasive technique is frequently used to do this surgery (laparoscopy).
- Surgery that makes it possible for waste to exit your body. You might require an ostomy if it’s not possible to reattach the healthy parts of your colon or rectum. In order to eliminate feces into a bag that fits snugly over the opening, a hole must be made in the abdominal wall using some of the residual bowels. The ostomy may occasionally only be temporary, giving your colon or rectum time to recover from surgery. The colostomy may, however, be permanent in some circumstances.
- Removing lymph nodes. During colon cancer surgery, nearby lymph nodes are typically also removed and screened for malignancy.
What are the other treatment types?
Your surgeon can suggest surgery to clear a colon blockage or treat other issues if your cancer is very advanced or if your general health is very bad in order to improve your symptoms. Instead of treating cancer, this surgery is performed to ease its signs and symptoms, such as a blockage, bleeding, or pain.
Your doctor might suggest surgery or other localized treatments to eradicate cancer in particular circumstances where it has only progressed to the liver or lung but your general health is good. Before or after this kind of operation, chemotherapy may be administered. Long-term cancer freedom may be possible with this method.
Drugs are used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells. If the cancer is more advanced or has spread to the lymph nodes, chemotherapy for colon cancer is typically administered following surgery. Chemotherapy may do this by eliminating any cancer cells that are still present in the body and lowering the likelihood of cancer recurrence.
Moreover, chemotherapy may be administered before surgery to reduce a large tumor so that it is simpler to remove surgically and to treat the symptoms of colon cancer that is either incurable or has spread to other parts of the body. It occasionally combines with radiation treatment.
To kill cancer cells, radiation therapy employs strong energy sources like X-rays and protons. Before a procedure, it might be used to reduce the size of large cancer so that it can be removed more readily. When surgery is not an option, symptoms like discomfort may be treated with radiation therapy.
Targeted Drug Therapy
Drug therapies that target specific abnormalities in cancer cells are used. Targeted medication therapies have the ability to kill cancer cells by obstructing these aberrations. Chemotherapy is frequently used in conjunction with targeted medicines. Usually, only those with advanced colon cancer are prescribed targeted medications.
An anti-cancer medicine therapy called immunotherapy makes use of your immune system. Because cancer cells create proteins that prevent immune system cells from detecting the cancer cells, your body’s immune system may not attack your cancer. Immunotherapy affects that process in order to work. Advanced colon cancer patients typically receive immunotherapy.
Providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness is the main goal of specialist medical care known as palliative care. A group of medical professionals, including nurses, social workers, and other specialists, provide palliative care. They collaborate with you, your loved ones, and your other doctors to add an extra level of support to your ongoing medical treatment. Teams providing palliative care work to enhance the lives of cancer patients and their loved ones. Together with any other treatments or curative measures you might be taking, this type of care is available. Cancer patients may feel better and live longer when palliative care is utilized in addition to all other necessary therapies.
What are the side effects of colon cancer treatment in Turkey?
Possible late and long-term effects of treatment include:
- Nerve damage. The nerve endings in the hands, feet, and lower legs may get damaged as a result of the chemotherapy medication oxaliplatin. Neuropathy is the term for this. After treatment, neuropathy might persist for months or even years in some patients. You might have numbness, weakness, or pins and needles. Daily activities including writing, picking up small objects, and walking may become difficult as a result. Throughout your chemotherapy cycle and for up to two weeks after it, you can experience neuropathy symptoms. Once your therapy is over, your symptoms might get better. If you experience any neuropathy symptoms, let your medical staff know. Your doctor could advise reducing the dose of oxaliplatin or switching your medication if the symptoms are interfering with your everyday life.
- Hernia. After surgery to your stomach area (abdomen), your muscles will not be as strong as before and you may be at risk of getting a hernia. This is caused by part of your insides pushing through a weak part of the muscle or tissue wall. After surgery for colon or rectal cancer, part of your bowel can push through the wound. For up to three months after surgery, refrain from lifting anything heavy to help prevent a hernia.
- Changes in bowel function. The nerves leading to the bladder may be impacted by rectal cancer surgery. You might not be able to completely empty your bladder, which could cause urine leakage. Radiation therapy might irritate your bladder, causing you to urinate more frequently or without much notice.
- Changes in sexual function
- Changes in bladder function
What is the cost of colon cancer treatment in Turkey?
The average cost of colon cancer from diagnosis to treatment is $29,196. Colon cancer patients who are in the local stage pay at least $27,551. Individuals with advanced colon cancer can expect to pay up to $30,748. The price varies based on the stage of the diagnosis and the existence of coexisting conditions. If your previous screening procedures were successful, resulting in a diagnosis at an early stage, you might suffer decreased long-term colon cancer costs.