Skin Cancer Treatment in Turkey
Skin Cancer Treatment in Turkey is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about Skin Cancer Treatment in Turkey. We kindly shared the main headings with you;
What is skin cancer?
Errors (mutations) in the DNA of skin cells are the cause of skin cancer. The cells proliferate out of control and gather into a mass of cancer cells as a result of the mutations. Most frequently, skin that has been exposed to the sun gets skin cancer, which is the abnormal proliferation of skin cells. Yet, this prevalent type of cancer can also develop in parts of your skin that are not often exposed to sunlight.Invest in your health, invest in a brighter future. Our comprehensive medical programs deliver real results, while you indulge in the beauty and serenity of our destination.
Where skin cancer develops?
The scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, hands, and legs are the most common sun-exposed body parts where skin cancer originates. But, it can also develop on regions of the body that are rarely exposed to sunlight, such as the vaginal region, the underside of your fingernails, or toenails. People of all skin tones, especially those with darker complexions, can get skin cancer. Those with dark skin tones are more prone to develop melanoma in places that aren’t often exposed to the sun, including the palms of their hands and the bottoms of their feet.
What are the causes of skin cancer?
The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, is where skin cancer first appears. Your body constantly sheds the epidermis, a thin layer of skin cells that serves as a protective barrier. Three primary cell types can be found in the epidermis:
- Squamous cells. The inner lining of the skin is made up of squamous cells, which are located immediately below the surface.
- Basal cells. Squamous cells are located underneath basal cells, which generate new skin cells.
- Melanocytes. The lowest layer of your epidermis is home to melanocytes, which create melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When you are exposed to the sun, melanocytes create more melanin to help protect the deeper layers of your skin.
UV Light and other additional factors
UV (ultraviolet) radiation, which is present in the sunshine and the lights used in tanning beds, is mostly responsible for the damage to DNA in skin cells. Therefore, skin cancers that appear on skin that is not typically exposed to sunlight cannot be attributed to sun exposure. This suggests that additional factors, such as exposure to toxins or having a disease that compromises your immune system, may raise your risk of developing skin cancer.
What are the factors that increase the risk of developing skin cancer?
Factors that may increase your risk of skin cancer include:
- Fair skin. Anyone, regardless of skin color, can get skin cancer. However, having less pigment (melanin) in your skin provides less protection from damaging UV radiation. If you have blond or red hair and light-colored eyes, and you freckle or sunburn easily, you’re much more likely to develop skin cancer than a person with darker skin.
- A history of sunburns. Having had one or more blistering sunburns as a child or teenager increases your risk of developing skin cancer as an adult. Sunburns in adulthood also are a risk factor.
- Excessive sun exposure. Anyone who spends considerable time in the sun may develop skin cancer, especially if the skin isn’t protected by sunscreen or clothing. Tanning, including exposure to tanning lamps and beds, also puts you at risk. A tan is your skin’s injury response to excessive UV radiation.
- Sunny or high-altitude climates. Living in a bright, warm climate exposes people to more sunlight than doing so in a cooler climate. Living at higher altitudes exposes you to more radiation because it is where the sun shines the brightest.
- Precancerous skin growths. The chance of getting skin cancer can increase if you have actinic keratoses on your skin. These precancerous skin growths frequently take the form of rough, scaly patches that range in hue from dark pink to brown. They typically appear on the face, head, and hands of fair-skinned people with sun-damaged skin.
- A history of skin cancer in the family. You may be at a higher risk for skin cancer if one of your parents or a sibling has had the condition.
- A personal history of skin cancer. You run the danger of getting skin cancer again if you’ve already had it once.
- A weak immune system. Skin cancer is more likely to occur in people who have compromised immune systems. This includes individuals using immunosuppressant medications after receiving an organ transplant and those with HIV/AIDS.
- Radiation exposure. Radiation therapy for skin diseases including eczema and acne may increase the risk of developing skin cancer, especially basal cell carcinoma.
- The exposure to specific chemicals. Your risk of developing skin cancer may increase if you are exposed to certain toxins, such as arsenic.
- Moles. Skin cancer risk is higher in people with numerous moles or atypical moles termed dysplastic nevi. These aberrant moles, which have an uneven appearance and are typically larger than normal moles, are more likely to develop into cancer than other types. If you’ve previously had unusual moles, keep an eye out for any changes.
Are all moles cancerous?
Most moles do not have malignancy. Some moles develop until around the age of 40, while others are present before birth. The majority of adults have 10 to 40 moles. A mole occasionally develops into melanoma. You have a higher risk of getting melanoma if you have more than 50 moles.
What are the types of skin cancer?
Skin cancer can take one of three major forms: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma.
Basal cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma typically develops in the skin that has been exposed to the sun, such as the neck or face. The symptoms of basal cell carcinoma include:
- An iridescent or waxy bump is a scar-like lesion that is flat, flesh-colored, or brown.
- A recurring wound that is bleeding or scabbing
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops on parts of your body that are exposed to the sun, like your face, ears, and hands. Squamous cell carcinoma is more likely to appear in parts of darker skin that aren’t frequently exposed to sunlight. Squamous cell cancer may manifest as:
- A robust red nodule
- A flat lesion with a crusty, scaly surface
Melanoma can appear anywhere on your body, in normal healthy skin or in a mole that has already been there but has turned cancerous. Men with melanoma typically develop the disease on their faces or trunks.
This form of cancer typically appears on the lower legs in females. In skin that hasn’t been exposed to the sun, melanoma can develop in both men and women. Any skin tone can be impacted by melanoma. Melanoma commonly develops on the hands, feet, or under the fingernails or toenails in those with darker skin tones.
Symptoms of melanoma include:
- A larger brown splotch with speckles of a different color
- A mole that changes in appearance, texture, size, or that bleeds
- A tiny lesion with a skewed border and areas that are red, pink, white, blue, or blue-black
- A painful, itchy, or burning lesion
- Black lesions in the mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina, or anus, or on your hands, feet, palms, or fingertips
Be aware of skin lesions that have the potential to turn precancerous and cause non-melanoma skin cancer. They typically appear as small, scaly, tan, or red patches and are located on skin surfaces that are exposed to the sun regularly, such as the hands’ backs and faces. You should schedule an appointment with your healthcare practitioner and show them any skin lesions or moles that are worrying you. They will examine your skin and might suggest that you visit a dermatologist so that the lesion can be further assessed.
What is the diagnosis of skin cancer?
Your dermatologist may start by inquiring about any changes you’ve seen in any moles, freckles, or other skin lesions already present in your body, as well as any new skin growths. The rest of your skin, including the skin on your scalp, ears, hands, and feet, between your toes, genitalia, and buttocks, will then be examined by the dermatologist. A biopsy may be done if a skin lesion is thought to be worrisome. During a biopsy, a sample of tissue is taken and sent to a lab where a pathologist can study it under a microscope. If your skin lesion is skin cancer, your dermatologist will identify it, describe the type you have, and go over your treatment choices.
How the stage of skin cancer is determined?
The American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system is the method most frequently employed to stage basal and squamous cell skin malignancies. The most recent revision, which became effective in 2018, only applies to skin malignancies of the head and neck that are basal cell and squamous in nature (lip, ear, face, scalp, and neck).
Three important pieces of information compose the stage:
- The tumor’s size (T) and whether it has affected surrounding tissues or structures, like a bone
- If neighboring lymph nodes have been affected by cancer (N)
- If cancer has distantly metastasized (spread) to the body (M)
T, N, and M are followed by numbers or letters that give more information about each of these elements. Cancer is more advanced if the numbers are higher. The determination of a person’s T, N, and M categories is followed by the combining of this data to determine their overall stage, a procedure known as stage grouping. Stage 0 is the earliest stage of skin cancer (also called carcinoma in situ, or CIS). The remaining stages are I (1) through IV (4). A higher number, such as stage IV, denotes that cancer has progressed more widely.
You should discuss the precise stage of your skin cancer with your doctor if it is in the head and neck region. Ask your doctor to explain cancer staging to you in terms you can understand because it can be a complicated process. Read more to know about Skin Cancer Treatment in Turkey
What is the skin cancer treatment in Turkey?
Cancer’s stage affects the course of treatment. Skin cancer can be diagnosed in stages ranging from 0 to IV. The greater the number, the greater the spread of the disease. If the cancer is little and restricted to your skin’s surface alone, a biopsy may occasionally be able to completely remove all the cancerous tissue. Other typical therapies for skin cancer, whether used alone or in conjunction:
Liquid nitrogen is used in cryotherapy to freeze skin cancer. Afterward, the dead cells slough off. This technique can be used to treat tiny, early malignancies confined to the top layer of the skin as well as precancerous skin lesions known as actinic keratoses.
With this therapy, a medicine is applied to your skin, where it is subsequently activated by a blue or red fluorescent light. Photodynamic therapy kills malignant cells while protecting healthy cells.
Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses radiation (powerful energy beams) to either kill or stop the division and growth of cancer cells.
In order to ensure that all cancer has been eliminated during surgery, the tumor and some healthy skin around it are removed.
The visible, elevated portion of the tumor is first removed using this treatment. Then, your surgeon scrapes away a tiny layer of skin cancer cells with a knife. After removal, the layer is immediately studied under a microscope. Layers of tissue are gradually removed one at a time until no more cancer cells are visible under a microscope. Mohs surgery preserves as much of the surrounding healthy tissue as possible while solely removing bad tissue. The most common places where it is applied are close to sensitive or vital cosmetic parts, such as the eyelids, ears, lips, forehead, scalp, fingers, or genital area.
Curettage and electrodesiccation
The procedure scrapes across the tumor with a tool that has a sharp, looping edge to eliminate cancer cells. The leftover cancer cells are subsequently eradicated from the area using an electric needle. Basal cell and squamous cell cancers as well as precancerous skin lesions are frequently treated with this method.
Chemotherapy and immunotherapy
Chemotherapy employs drugs to eradicate cancer cells. If the cancer is contained in the top layer of your skin, topical chemotherapy can be used. If the disease has spread to other regions of your body, anticancer drugs can be given to you orally or intravenously. Immunotherapy employs the immune system of your own body to eliminate cancer cells.
What are the side effects of skin cancer treatment?
The aftereffects of skin cancer surgery frequently depend on the complexity of the procedure. Surgery for basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas is usually minimally invasive, although there is a chance that it could have some negative effects. More difficult side effects could result from skin malignancies that require more severe surgery. Skin cancer surgery side effects could include:
- Scarring or disfigurement
- Swelling or bruising
- Nerve damage or numbness
What are the precautions that can be taken to prevent skin cancer?
Most skin malignancies can be avoided. Follow these recommendations for preventing skin cancer to stay safe:
- Avoid being in the sun at midday. The sun’s rays are most intense for many people in North America between the hours of 10 am and 4 pm. Even in the winter or when the sky is hazy, schedule outside activities for other times of the day. You are constantly exposed to UV radiation, and clouds do little to block its harmful rays. You can reduce your risk of developing skin cancer by avoiding exposure to the sun during its peak hours. Sunburns and suntans damage your skin and raise your risk of getting them. Skin cancer may also develop as a result of cumulative sun exposure.
- Always use sunscreen. Sunscreens don’t completely block out all UV light, particularly the energy that might cause melanoma. Yet, they are crucial in a larger sun protection strategy. Despite the presence of clouds, wear broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30. Make sure to generously apply sunscreen and reapply it every two hours, or more frequently if you’re swimming or perspiring. Apply amounts of sunscreen to all areas of skin that are exposed, including your lips, the tips of your ears, the backs of your hands, and your neck.
- Put on safety gear. Sunscreens don’t completely protect skin from UV radiation. Wear dark, tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs and a broad-brimmed hat to protect your skin, which offers greater protection than a baseball cap or visor. Moreover, several businesses offer photo-protective clothes. An acceptable brand can be suggested by a dermatologist. Use sunglasses, especially those that can block UVA and UVB rays.
- Avoid tanning beds. UV rays are emitted by tanning bed lights, which can raise your chance of developing skin cancer.
- Be aware of drugs that cause sun sensitivity. Antibiotics are among the numerous prescription and OTC medications that can increase your skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. Concerning the adverse effects of any medications you take, see your doctor or pharmacist. Take extra steps to avoid the sun to protect your skin if they make you more sensitive to sunlight.
- Regularly check your skin, and let your doctor know about any changes. Check your skin frequently for new skin growths or alterations to moles, freckles, lumps, and birthmarks that already exist.
Examine your face, neck, ears, and scalp using mirrors. Check the tops and backs of your arms, hands, and trunk, as well as your chest. Inspect your feet, paying special attention to the soles and the gaps in between your toes, as well as the front and rear of your legs. Also, look between your buttocks and your genitalia.