Metastatic Prostate Treatment: All You Need to Know

Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know

Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about metastatic prostate cancer and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is prostate cancer?

Men and people who were assigned male at birth (AMAB) have a prostate, a small walnut-shaped gland that is situated in front of the rectum and below the bladder. To maintain sperm healthy for conception and pregnancy, this small gland secretes fluid that combines with semen. A dangerous condition is prostate cancer. Thankfully, most men with prostate cancer receive a diagnosis before the disease has spread past the prostate gland. The cancer is frequently curbed with treatment at this point.

Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know

What causes prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer develops when cells divide more quickly than usual, just like other cancers do. Cancer cells do not eventually die, but normal cells do. Instead, they proliferate and develop into a lump known as a tumor. Parts of the tumor may separate and “metastasize” to other regions of your body as the cells keep growing. Fortunately, prostate cancer typically advances slowly. The majority of tumors are discovered before your prostate has been affected by the disease. At this point, prostate cancer is quite curable.Invest in your health, invest in a brighter future. Our comprehensive medical programs deliver real results, while you indulge in the beauty and serenity of our destination.

What are the risk factors of prostate cancer?

The most typical risk elements are:

  • Age. Growing older puts you at greater risk. If you’re over 50, you have a higher chance of being diagnosed. Prostate cancer affects adults older than 65 in about 60% of cases.
  • Ethnicity and race. If you are Black or have African ancestry, you are at higher risk. You have a higher chance of developing prostate tumors that spread quickly. 
  • Family history. If you have a close relative who has prostate cancer, your risk of developing it is two to three times higher.
  • Genetics. Lynch syndrome and the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are linked to an elevated risk of breast cancer, are risk factors for the disease.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Rarely do symptoms of early-stage prostate cancer appear. As the illness advances, several problems could arise:

  • Frequent and occasional urge to urinate, especially at night.
  • Weak pee flow or intermittent urine flow.
  • Dysuria, which is the condition of experiencing pain or burning while urinating.
  • Bladder control issues (incontinence).
  • Bowel incontinence, also known as fecal incontinence.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED) and painful ejaculation.
  • Hematospermia, or blood in the sperm or urine.
  • Pain in your chest, hips, or lower back.

What is the diagnosis for prostate cancer?

There are several methods for diagnosis:

Screenings 

Prostate cancer can be early detected thanks to screenings. At age 55, if your risk is average, you’ll likely get your first screening procedure. If you belong to a high-risk category, you could require earlier testing. Screenings typically come to an end at age 70. If screenings reveal that you may have prostate cancer, you may need additional testing or procedures. Screenings are provided in two forms:

  • Digital rectal exam: Your doctor feels your prostate gland with a finger that has been greased and gloved. A lump or hard spot could be cancer.
  • Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA): The prostate gland produces a protein referred to as PSA. High PSA levels could be a sign of cancer. Additionally, levels increase if you have benign diseases like BPH or prostatitis.

Imaging

Your prostate gland can be seen on an MRI or transrectal ultrasound, along with any suspicious-looking regions that might represent cancer. Imaging data can assist your doctor in determining whether to take a biopsy or not.

Biopsy

During a needle biopsy, a medical professional takes a sample of tissue to be examined for cancer in a laboratory. The only reliable approach to identify prostate cancer or determine its aggressiveness is through a biopsy. The biopsy tissue may be subjected to genetic testing by your doctor. Some cancer cells contain traits (such as mutations) that increase their propensity to respond to particular therapies.

How the stage of prostate cancer is determined?

To establish the severity of the disease and the kinds of therapies you require, healthcare professionals use the Gleason score and cancer staging.

  • Gleason score: Your doctor can evaluate how abnormal your cancer cells are using the Gleason score. Your Gleason score increases as the number of aberrant cells increases. Your doctor can assess your cancer’s grade or potential for aggression using the Gleason score.
  • Prostate cancer staging: Your doctor can assess the stage of your cancer and how far it has spread by doing so. Cancer may just affect your prostate gland (local), invade surrounding structures (regional), or metastasize (spread to other organs). Your lymph nodes and bones are the most typical sites where prostate cancer spreads. Other organs such as the liver, brain, lungs, and others may also develop it.

What is metastatic prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer that has spread to other body organs is referred to as metastatic prostate cancer. It is referred to as advanced prostate cancer occasionally. The bones or lymph nodes in other places of the body are where it spreads most frequently. It can also invade different organs, such as the lungs.

If you want to learn more about what prostate cancer is continue reading Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know. 

What are the side effects of prostate cancer?

Possible negative effects include:

  • Incontinence: Even though your bladder isn’t full, you can leak urine when you cough, laugh, or have an intense urge to urinate. Without treatment, this issue often gets better throughout the first six to twelve months.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED): Procedures such as surgery, radiation, and other medical procedures can harm the erectile nerves in the penis, which can impair your ability to achieve or sustain an erection. Erectile function usually returns in a year or two (occasionally sooner). The blood flow to your penis can be improved by taking drugs like sildenafil (Viagra®) or tadalafil (Cialis®), in the interim.
  • Infertility: Treatments may impair your capacity to create or ejaculate sperm, which might lead to infertility. Before beginning therapy, you can store sperm in a sperm bank if you intend to have children in the future. After therapy, you might have sperm extracted. In this process, sperm is directly removed from testicular tissue and implanted into the uterus of your spouse.

What are the treatment types for prostate cancer?

Surveillance

If your cancer grows slowly and doesn’t spread, your doctor may choose to monitor your situation rather than treat you. 

  • Active surveillance: To track the development of cancer, you have screenings, scans, and biopsies every one to three years.If the cancer is only in your prostate, is growing slowly, and isn’t causing any symptoms, active surveillance is most effective. Your doctor can begin treating you if your problem gets worse. 
  • Watchful waiting: Active surveillance is comparable to watchful waiting, but it is more frequently applied to frailer cancer patients who are unlikely to respond to treatment. Testing occurs significantly less frequently as well. Treatments frequently concentrate on treating symptoms rather than removing the tumor. 

Surgery

A damaged prostate gland is removed during a radical prostatectomy. It frequently eradicates prostate tumors that haven’t progressed. If your doctor thinks you would benefit from this procedure, they can advise you on the optimal removal technique. 

Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know

  • Open radical prostatectomy: Your doctor removes your prostate gland by a single abdominal incision that extends from your belly button to your pubic bone. Compared to less invasive procedures like robotic prostatectomy, this technique is less common.
  • Robotic radical prostatectomy: With a robotic radical prostatectomy, your surgeon can operate through a number of small incisions. They use a console to control a robot system rather than directly controlling it.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy can be used alone or in conjunction with other therapies to treat prostate cancer. Additionally, radiation may help with symptoms.

  • Brachytherapy: Also known as internal radiation therapy, this process of treating cancer of the prostate includes implanting radioactive seeds there. With this method, cancer cells are destroyed but surrounding healthy tissue is kept intact.
  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT): It involves the direct application of potent X-ray beams to the tumor by means of a machine. High doses of radiation can be directed at the tumor while still protecting healthy tissue with specialized EBRT techniques like IMRT.

Systemic Therapies

If cancer has progressed beyond your prostate gland, your doctor might advise systemic therapy. Systemic treatments distribute chemicals throughout your body to kill cancer cells or stop their growth.

  • Hormone therapy: The hormone testosterone promotes the development of cancer cells under hormone therapy. Medications are used in hormone treatment to counteract testosterone’s contribution to the proliferation of cancer cells. The drugs function by either lowering your testosterone levels or preventing testosterone from reaching cancer cells. Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your testicles to stop them from producing testosterone. Your doctor may advise this as an alternative. For those who prefer not to use medicine, this procedure is an option.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy employs drugs to eradicate cancer cells. If the cancer has gone beyond the prostate, you may undergo hormone therapy in addition to chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapy: By fortifying your immune system, immunotherapy makes it more capable of detecting and eliminating cancer cells. In order to treat advanced cancer or recurrent cancer (cancer that disappears but then reappears), your doctor may advise immunotherapy.
  • Targeted therapy: In order to stop cancer cells from proliferating and changing into new cancer cells, targeted therapy focuses on the genetic alterations (mutations) that cause healthy cells to become cancer cells. Prostate cancer patients who receive targeted therapy eliminate their cancerous cells that have BRCA gene abnormalities.

Focal Therapy

A more recent method of treatment called focal therapy eliminates malignancies inside the prostate. If the cancer is low risk and hasn’t spread, your doctor might advise this treatment. The majority of these therapies are currently regarded as experimental.

  • High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU): Strong heat is produced by high-intensity sound waves to kill cancer cells in your prostate.
  • Cryotherapy: Freezing prostate cancer cells with cold gases destroys the tumor.
  • Laser ablation: By killing the cancer cells in your prostate with intense heat, the tumor is removed.
  • Photodynamic therapy: Drugs increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to specific light wavelengths. These light wavelengths are applied by a medical professional to eliminate cancer cells.

How to prevent prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer cannot be prevented. Even so, in this article, Metastatic Prostate Cancer: All You Need to Know, we advise you to follow these instructions to lower your risk:

  • Have frequent prostate screenings. According to your risk factors, ask your healthcare professional how frequently you should get checked.
  • Keep a healthy weight. Find out from your doctor what a healthy weight is for you.
  • Exercise regularly. More than 20 minutes of moderate-intensity activity each day, or 150 minutes per week, is advised by the CDC.
  • Follow a healthy diet. While there isn’t a single diet that will prevent cancer, healthy eating practices can enhance your general well-being. Eat entire grains, fruits, and veggies.
  • Give up smoking. Don’t use tobacco products. If you smoke, work on quitting with the help of your healthcare professional.

Why choose prostate cancer treatment in Turkey?

  • Effectiveness of treatments. Turkey provides patients with cutting-edge therapies. Patients are grateful for the favorable results of these cutting-edge therapies.
  • The professionalism of the doctors. Turkish medical professionals with extensive training and experience carry out a lot of procedures and treatments and are a part of renowned organizations. Turkish medical professionals are actively learning new techniques for detecting and treating cancer while frequently exchanging knowledge with overseas counterparts. Turkish oncologists are able to produce excellent results thanks to ongoing skill improvement, access to cutting-edge technology, and sophisticated equipment.
  • Service quality. Patients value the excellent quality of service, which includes complimentary services like transportation from the airport to the hospital and translation services.

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