Laser Surgery for Laryngeal Cancer

Laser Surgery for Laryngeal Cancer is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about laser surgery for laryngeal cancer and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is laryngeal cancer?

Your larynx, a portion of your throat, is impacted by laryngeal cancer. Your larynx facilitates swallowing, breathing, and speaking. It has your vocal cords in it. Uncontrolled cell growth in the larynx can result in cancer that affects the vocal cords or larynx. These malignant (cancerous) cells penetrate tissues and cause harm to your body as they grow. 

Where does laryngeal cancer occur?

Any of the three primary regions of the larynx can develop laryngeal cancer: 

  • Supraglottis: This is the upper region; 35% of laryngeal tumors begin here.
  • Glottis: This region, which houses your voice cords, is where more than half of laryngeal malignancies (60%) begin.
  • Subglottis (lower part): Approximately 1 in 20 laryngeal malignancies begin here, or 5% of cases.


What are the risk factors of laryngeal cancer?

Your risk of laryngeal cancer is significantly increased if you smoke or use other tobacco products. Consuming alcohol, particularly in excess (more than one drink every day), also increases your risk. Additionally, the combination of alcohol and tobacco use raises your risk even higher. Additional risk factors for laryngeal carcinoma consist of:

  • Age: People 55 and older are more likely to develop laryngeal cancer.
  • Sex: Men and those assigned male at birth have a five-fold increased risk of developing this cancer, perhaps due to a higher prevalence of smoking and excessive alcohol use in this population.
  • History of head and neck cancer: Of those who have had the disease, 25% will experience recurrence.
  • Occupation: Individuals who handle specific chemicals on the job run a higher danger. These materials include wood dust, nickel, asbestos, sulfuric acid mist, and mustard gas produced during production. Additionally, there is an increased risk of laryngeal cancer in those who operate machinery.
  • Poor Nutrition: Eating a diet heavy in processed foods and poor in fruits and vegetables may raise your risk of developing laryngeal cancer.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Prolonged acid reflux increases the risk of laryngeal cancer by causing irritation and inflammation of the esophagus and larynx.

What are the symptoms of laryngeal cancer?

The early symptoms of laryngeal cancer might be easily confused with those of other illnesses. Speak with a healthcare professional if you have any of the following symptoms so they can properly diagnose you:

  • Persistently sore throat or persistent cough
  • Alterations in voice that don’t go away after two weeks, like hoarseness
  • Discomfort or other issues with swallowing
  • A lump in your throat or neck
  • Difficulty producing vocal sounds (dysphonia)
  • Ache in the ears
  • Respiratory difficulties (dyspnea)
  • Breathing that is high-pitched and noisy (stridor)
  • Globus sensation, the sensation that something is lodged in your throat
  • Spitting blood (hemoptysis) out


It’s crucial to remember that many people who have laryngeal cancer have no known risk factors and that having one or more risk factors does not guarantee that someone will get laryngeal cancer. On the other hand, lowering exposure to recognized risk factors, such as giving up alcohol and smoking, can help lower the chance of laryngeal cancer. Routine medical exams and screenings can also facilitate early detection and treatment.

How laryngeal cancer is diagnosed?

Your medical history and symptoms will be inquired about by a healthcare professional. They will examine your neck and throat during a physical examination. You will most likely require more testing to confirm a diagnosis after the initial examination. 

  • Imaging scans: A detailed image of your interior organs can be obtained with a CT or MRI scan. They can display the location and size of a tumor. An X-ray of the chest can reveal whether the cancer has progressed to the lungs.
  • Laryngoscopy: An endoscope, a narrow, illuminated tube, is used by a healthcare professional to inspect your larynx during a laryngoscopy.
  • PET scan: A little, harmless dosage of radioactive material is injected into your vein by a medical professional during a PET scan. The material draws attention to cancerous cell growth.
  • Biopsy: In a biopsy, a medical professional takes a little sample of abnormal tissue from your larynx for microscopic examination. A pathologist is a professional who will study the cells and search for certain protein markers. Certain cancer treatments are limited to targeting cancer cells that exhibit particular protein markers.

Following a confirmed diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, more testing could be carried out to ascertain the cancer’s stage and inform treatment choices. These could involve extra imaging tests, such as bone scans or chest X-rays, in addition to specialist exams to evaluate swallowing and voice cord function. Depending on the stage and characteristics of the cancer, treatment options for laryngeal cancer may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

What is the staging of laryngeal cancer?

If laryngectomy cancer progresses, it can also affect your thyroid, esophagus, tongue, lungs, liver, and bones. Staging the cancer is a step in the diagnosing process. The extent of the tumor’s growth and whether and where it has infected your body’s tissues will be determined by your care team. Laryngeal carcinoma stages include,

  • Early stages of laryngeal cancer: Tumor size is small in stages 0, 1, and 2. Your larynx has not been affected by cancer.
  • Stages 3 and 4 of advanced laryngeal cancer: The tumor has gotten bigger. It has infected your lymph nodes, damaged your vocal cords, or spread to other parts of your body.

What is a laser surgery?

Using a laser, which is a powerful light beam, tissue can be sliced without bleeding during laser surgery. Other names for it include photocoagulation, photoablation, and laser therapy. Most frequently, chemotherapy or radiation therapy is used in conjunction with laser surgery to treat cancer.

What is laser surgery used for?

In the treatment of cancer, laser surgery may be used to:

  • Eliminate any abnormal tissue or tiny tumors that are on or near the skin’s surface
  • Ease tumor-related symptoms including pain, bleeding, or dyspnea
  • Reduce a tumor that is causing a blockage

The most common uses for laser surgery include carcinoma in situ and precancerous situations. of the penis, vulva, vagina, or cervix. Laser surgery is not an option for removing large tumors.

What is the laser surgery for laryngeal cancer treatment?

Early-stage laryngeal tumors may be treated using endoscopic laser surgery, commonly known as transoral laser microsurgery, or TLM. Because endoscopic surgery is performed through the mouth as opposed to a neck incision, it is less intrusive. The surgeon places the laser on the tissue that has to be treated after passing an endoscope with a microscope down the patient’s throat. A focused, high-intensity light beam is used in laser surgery to eradicate the malignancy. To maintain regular speech, swallowing, and breathing, it helps protect laryngeal tissue.

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What are the types of laser in laser surgery for laryngeal cancer treatment?

The gas, liquid, or solid that is used to produce light gives lasers their names. Laser surgery can make use of a variety of laser types. The depth to which the laser penetrates tissues varies. The three types of lasers listed below are most frequently utilized in cancer treatments.

  • CO2 Lasers: Without touching deeper skin layers, a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser destroys superficial skin layers. Tumors that are superficial to the skin or organ (i.e., have not penetrated deeply into the tissue) can be treated with it. Additionally, several precancerous conditions are treated with it.
  • Argon Lasers: Tissue can only be penetrated by argon lasers in very thin layers. Certain forms of skin cancer and eye cancer are treated with this kind of laser. During a colonoscopy, a polyp may also be removed using this technique. For photodynamic treatment, argon lasers are employed (PDT), which employs medications known as photosensitizers—which become active when exposed to light—to kill cancer cells.
  • Nd: YAG Lasers: Compared to other laser types, Nd: YAG lasers can penetrate deeper into tissue. Hard-to-reach body parts can be treated with this kind of laser by passing it through fiber optic cables in an endoscope. Certain malignancies, such as those of the throat, skin, liver, and prostate, are treated with Nd: YAG lasers. They are also utilized to halt bleeding because of their ability to swiftly form blood clots.

What are the other treatment types of laryngeal cancer?

Laryngeal cancer treatment entails,

  • Radiation therapy: To destroy cancer cells, radiation oncologists use high-energy radiation beams. To reduce harm to nearby healthy tissue, the radiation solely targets the tumor. 
  • Chemotherapy: Drugs are used by medical oncologists to either destroy or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy is frequently administered intravenously (into a vein). An oncologist can assist you in managing the negative effects of chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapy: This treatment helps fight cancer by utilizing your body’s inherent defenses, the immune system. Biologic therapy is another name for immunotherapy.
  • Targeted therapy: This medical intervention uses particular protein types to target cancer cells and stop them from proliferating.

Why choose laser surgery for laryngeal cancer in Turkey?

The specifics of the malignancy, the patient’s general health, and the medical team’s experience all play a role in the decision to treat laryngeal cancer with laser surgery in Turkey or any other country. But for several reasons, Turkey might be a desirable destination for laser surgery:

  • Advanced Medical Facilities: Modern, state-of-the-art medical facilities in Turkey are furnished with laser surgery equipment for treating laryngeal cancer, among other advanced medical procedures. Major cities like Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir are home to numerous hospitals that are well-known for providing top-notch medical care.
  • Expert Medical Professionals: Turkey is renowned for its talented medical staff, which includes expert surgeons with a focus on treating head and neck cancer. In Turkey, surgeons who use laser surgery to treat laryngeal cancer frequently have a great deal of experience and knowledge with this particular procedure.
  • Minimal Invasive Approach: Tumors from the larynx can be removed with laser surgery, a minimally invasive surgical method that preserves the surrounding healthy tissue. Compared to standard open surgery, this method may lead to shorter recovery times, a lower risk of complications, and greater preservation of speech and swallowing function.
  • Cost-Effective Care: Compared to many Western nations, medical care in Turkey, particularly laser surgery for cancer, can be more affordable. Because of its affordability, people looking for high-quality care at a lesser cost can find it to be an appealing alternative.

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