HIFU for Prostate Cancer

HIFU for Prostate Cancer

HIFU for Prostate Cancer is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about HIFU for prostate cancer and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is a prostate cancer?

The prostate is situated in front of the rectum, the last segment of the intestines, and beneath the bladder, the hollow organ that stores urine. Seminal vesicles are glands located just behind the prostate that produce the majority of semen fluid. The middle of the prostate is traversed by the urethra, the tube that exits the body through the penis to carry urine and semen. As a man matures, his prostate usually enlarges. It is roughly the size of a walnut in younger men, but in older men, it can be much larger.

HIFU for Prostate Cancer

What are the biological causes of prostate cancer?

The biological causes of prostate cancer include,

Genetic changes

Certain genes typically aid in regulating when our cells divide to create new ones, grow, or fix errors in our DNA. They can also trigger cell death at the appropriate times. A malfunction in these genes may cause cells to proliferate uncontrollably. Genes that typically aid in cell growth, division, or survival may become oncogenes due to changes in their normal function that make them excessively active. These genes may cause uncontrollably expanding cells. Tumor suppressor genes are those that typically aid in controlling cell division or trigger cell death at the appropriate moment. Cells may proliferate uncontrollably if some genes are altered to switch them off.


Inherited gene mutations

Certain gene mutations are present in every cell of an individual and can run in families. Up to 10% of prostate cancers are believed to be caused by these hereditary gene alterations. Hereditary cancer is defined as cancer that results from inherited genes. Hereditary prostate cancer has been associated with inherited mutations in several genes, including:

  • BRCA1 and BRCA2
  • DNA mismatch repair genes (such as MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2)
  • HOXB13
  • RNASEL (formerly HPC1)

What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?

  • Age. Men under 40 are not likely to develop prostate cancer, but after age 50, the risk increases significantly. Men over 65 are about to be diagnosed with prostate cancer 6 out of 10 times.
  • Race/ethnicity. Compared to males of other races, men of African American and Caribbean descent are more likely to get prostate cancer. Furthermore, these males typically develop it at an earlier age. Compared to non-Hispanic White males, men who identify as Asian American, Hispanic, or Latino have a lower incidence of prostate cancer. It’s unclear why there are significant racial and ethnic disparities.
  • Family history. Given that prostate cancer appears to occur in some families, there may occasionally be a hereditary or genetic component to the disease. Even then, individuals without a family history of the disease typically get prostate cancer. A man’s chance of prostate cancer is more than doubled if his father or sibling has the condition. (Men who have a brother with the illness are more at risk than those who have a parent with it.) Men who have multiple affected relatives are even more at risk, especially if the relatives were young at the time the illness was discovered.

What are the types of prostate cancer?

Adenocarcinomas account for nearly all cases of prostate cancer.

The prostate’s gland cells, which produce the fluid that’s added to semen, are the source of these tumors. The prostate can also become the site of other cancers, such as:

  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, or small cell cancer
  • Additional neuroendocrine cancers, such as big cell carcinoma
  • Cancer in transitional cells
  • Sarcomas

These other cancer forms are uncommon. You probably have an adenocarcinoma if you are diagnosed with prostate cancer. 

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Prostate malignancies are typically detected early because to screening. Most of the time, early prostate cancer has no symptoms. Although uncommon, early prostate cancer symptoms could include:

  • Urinary issues, such as a weak or sluggish stream
  • The need to urinate more frequently
  • Blood in the semen or pee

More advanced prostate cancer can occasionally produce other symptoms in addition to the ones listed above, like:

  • Problems achieving an erection (also known as ED)
  • Pain from cancer that has progressed to the bones in the hips, back (spine), chest (ribs), or other regions
  • Spinal cancer pressing on the spinal cord can cause weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, as well as loss of control over the bladder or intestines.
  • Loss of weight


PIN (Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia)

Under a microscope, the prostate cells in PIN don’t appear normal, but they also don’t appear to be encroaching on other prostate regions, unlike cancerous cells. While PIN does not cause cancer, it can occasionally increase the risk of prostate cancer. Depending on the appearance of the cell patterns, PIN is categorized as either:

Prostate cell patterns can be classified as low-grade (if they seem nearly normal) or high-grade (if they appear more aberrant). It is not believed that a man’s risk of prostate cancer is correlated with low-grade PIN. Prostate cancer may eventually be more likely to develop in those with high-grade PIN. High-grade PIN, however, frequently does not progress to malignancy.

PIA (Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy)

Prostate cells seem smaller than usual in PIA, and the region exhibits indications of inflammation. Prostate cancer or high-grade PIN can occur from PIA, however, PIA itself is not cancerous.

What are the ablative treatment types for prostate cancer?

Treating the entire prostate gland or, in a technique called focused therapy, only the area of the prostate where the cancer is suspected to be located can be done using adjuvant therapies. Focal therapy’s primary benefit is that, compared to therapies like radiation or surgery that target the prostate as a whole, it is probably less likely to cause side effects.

In some circumstances, such as following radiation therapy, some ablative treatments, such as cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasounds (HIFU), may be useful in treating prostate cancer.

These days, some physicians recommend them as the first treatments for prostate cancers in their early stages that have little chance of progressing and spreading. However, unless surgery and radiation are not suitable options, the majority of expert groups do not advise using ablative therapy as the initial treatment for prostate cancer. The fundamental reason for this is the lack of long-term data demonstrating the comparative effectiveness of these treatments vs radiation or surgery.

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Cryotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer cells are frozen and destroyed with cryotherapy, also known as cryosurgery or cryoablation. Physicians have significantly less knowledge regarding the long-term efficacy of cryotherapy than they have about surgery or radiation therapy. Although some types of cryotherapy have been around for a long time, little is known about contemporary cryotherapy procedures because they are still relatively new.

If radiation therapy is not successful in curing the cancer, cryotherapy may be employed. For men with early-stage, low-risk prostate cancer who are not candidates for radiation therapy or surgery, it might be a treatment option. Cryotherapy isn’t typically used as the initial course of treatment for prostate cancer.


Side Effects

The extent to which the prostate is treated determines the side effects of cryotherapy. Compared to males who receive radiation therapy as their initial treatment, they typically worsen among men who have previously received it. After the operation, most men have soreness in the area where the needles were inserted and blood in their urine for a day or two. Penis and scrotal swelling is also typical. Additionally, freezing may have an impact on the rectum and bladder, which may result in discomfort, burning feelings, and frequent bowel and bladder emptying. Over time, most men regain normal bladder and bowel function.

HIFU for Prostate Cancer (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound)

Either spinal anesthesia, which numbs the lower half of the body, or general anesthesia, which puts the patient in a deep slumber, can be used for this treatment. Initially, a specialized ultrasonic probe is placed into the rectum and utilized to provide three-dimensional pictures of the prostate. The parts of the prostate that require treatment can be identified by the doctor by fusing them with images from other tests, such as MRIs. Subsequently, those prostate regions are precisely heated and destroyed by high-intensity ultrasound beams created by the probe. Usually, the process takes one to four hours. You will have a urinary catheter following the treatment, and it may remain in place for a week or longer. Most men can return home that day.

HIFU for Prostate Cancer

Side Effects

Following therapy, side effects may include:

  • Discomfort in the area being treated
  • Urine containing blood
  • An elevated likelihood of contracting a UTI
  • Having difficulties urinating
  • Frequently feeling the urge to urinate

While they are still conceivable, the chances of long-term issues like erectile dysfunction and urine incontinence are probably smaller than they are with procedures like radiation therapy or surgery.

Therefore, HIFU is the safest treatment option.

What is the importance of follow-up care?

After your treatment is over, your doctors will still want to keep a careful eye on you. Attending all of your follow-up appointments is crucial. Your doctors will inquire about any issues you may be experiencing during these appointments, and they may perform examinations, lab tests, or imaging scans to check for cancerous growths or adverse effects from therapy. Certain adverse effects of treatment may not even become apparent for years after the treatment has ended, or they may endure for a very long time. You should discuss any changes, issues, or worries you have with your doctor at your visits, as well as ask questions. Any new symptoms or issues should be reported to the healthcare team by all prostate cancer survivors, as they may indicate the return of the cancer or be the result of another illness or cancer.

Why choose HIFU for prostate cancer in Turkey?

Choosing High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for prostate cancer treatment in Turkey can be advantageous for several reasons:

  • Advanced Medical Facilities: Turkey has modern medical facilities equipped with state-of-the-art technology for cancer treatment, including HIFU machines.
  • Experienced Medical Professionals: Turkish hospitals and clinics often have experienced urologists and oncologists who are skilled in using HIFU for prostate cancer treatment. These professionals may have received specialized training in HIFU procedures.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: Medical procedures in Turkey can be more affordable compared to many Western countries, making HIFU treatment an attractive option for patients seeking high-quality care at a lower cost.


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