Eye Cancer

Eye Cancer

Eye Cancer is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about eye cancer and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is eye cancer?

Numerous uncommon tumors that start in the eye, including the eyeball and the tissues around it, are referred to as eye cancers. Tumors are formed when cells proliferate uncontrollably, leading to eye cancer. Benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumors are also possible. Malignant tumors, in contrast to benign ones, can grow and transmit cancer throughout your body.

What causes eye cancer?

Similar to other types of cancer, eye cancer arises from uncontrollably dividing and multiplying cells that ultimately form a mass known as a tumor. Tumor fragments have the potential to break off and enter your circulation and lymph nodes. Through the lymphatic and circulatory systems, cancer cells can spread throughout your body and cause new tumors to develop in other organs. Healthcare professionals describe this as “spread” or “metastasized” cancer. It indicates a more serious illness.

What are the risk factors of eye cancer?

Researchers have found several risk factors that may raise your chance of acquiring eye cancer:

  • Age: Most eye malignancies diagnosed by doctors occur in patients over 50. Retinoblastoma is the exception, affecting youngsters younger than five years old.
  • Skin tone: Having light skin and being white increases your risk of developing eye cancer.
  • Eye color: Compared to dark eyes (brown), those with light eyes (blue, green) are more prone to developing eye cancer.
  • Hereditary conditions: Having multiple unusual-looking moles is a symptom of the genetic condition dysplastic nevus syndrome, which can raise your chance of developing various types of eye cancer. The BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome raises the possibility of developing uveal melanoma among other cancers.
  • Tanning and sun exposure: These factors could probably raise your chance of intraocular melanoma. To be certain, additional research needs to be done by medical researchers.

What are the symptoms of eye cancer?

The majority of people are unaware that they have eye cancer until a medical professional, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist, finds something unusual during an examination of the eyes. For instance, a dark patch or swollen blood vessels in your eye could be signs of eye cancer or another eye ailment. To be sure, testing will be necessary.Invest in your health, invest in a brighter future. Our comprehensive medical programs deliver real results, while you indulge in the beauty and serenity of our destination.

Many cases of eye cancer go undiagnosed until a tumor grows to the point where it affects the function of the eye. It is not always the case that symptoms indicate ocular cancer. Eye cancer and many benign (noncancerous) eye disorders have similar symptoms. To be sure, see a healthcare professional. The most typical sign of eye cancer is a painless loss of vision.

Other visual issues that could indicate an eye malignancy include:

  • Blurry vision.
  • Partial or total vision loss
  • Seeing flashes of light, squiggly lines or spots

Other signs and symptoms include:

  • A bulging eye
  • Eye irritation
  • Growing dark spot in your iris
  • A growing lump on your eyelid or in your eyeball
  • Changes in your eyeball’s positioning in the socket and how it moves

Symptoms of eye cancer

What are the types of eye cancer?

Eye cancers are categorized by medical professionals according to the type of cancer, where it originates, and where the eye is located.


Eyelid and orbital cancers

Cancers of the orbital and adnexal regions develop in the tissues near your eyes. Cancers of the orbit, or the muscles, nerves, and tissues that move your eyeball, can develop. Your eyelids and tear glands are among the supporting tissues where adnexal cancer can develop. Medical professionals categorize them based on the kind of cell that develops into cancer. These types include,

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: Arises from the squamous cells found in the epidermis.
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Arises from the basal cells found in the epidermis.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma: Develops within muscle

eye lid cancer

Intraocular melanomas

Melanocytes, the same type of cell responsible for the most dangerous type of skin cancer, are the source of intraocular melanoma. Melanomas account for the majority of eye malignancies. Most develop in the uvea, the central region of your eye. We refer to them as uveal melanomas. They include,

  • Iris melanoma: Develops in the iris, the colorful portion of your eye. It frequently results in a dark, protruding patch that contrasts sharply with your iris. Their growth is usually gradual.
  • Ciliary body melanoma: Forms in the muscles that control the lens of your eye to allow you to see both close and remote objects. Your iris is visible behind the ciliary body.
  • Choroidal melanoma: Forms in the muscles that control the lens of your eye to allow you to see both close and remote objects. Your iris is visible behind the ciliary body. forms in the layer of your eyeball that supplies blood to the front and back of your eyes, nourishing the retina. The most typical location for eye melanoma to develop is the choroid.

The membrane covering the front of your eyeball, the conjunctiva, is where melanomas can occasionally develop. We refer to them as conjunctival melanomas. They are extremely uncommon. They are aggressive, and they tend to spread like uveal melanomas.


Intraocular lymphoma

One uncommon type of B-cell lymphoma is intraocular lymphoma. It develops in lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. The majority of those who experience it are older than 50 or have compromised immune systems. Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a common comorbidity of this type of eye cancer (PCNSL). PCNSL is a kind of cancer that can impact the brain, spinal cord, and spinal fluid, among other components of the central nervous system.



A cancerous growth that originates from the retina at the rear of the eye is called retinoblastoma. Children younger than five are most likely to have them.

What is the diagnosis of eye cancer?

Eye cancer is diagnosed by an ocular oncologist or an ophthalmologist, who specializes in eye diseases. Before making a cancer diagnosis, they might carry out several tests to rule out other, more frequent eye disorders.


Eye Exam

A medical professional closely inspects your eye during an eye exam to check for any indications of malignancy. They might search for swollen blood vessels and black areas. They could examine your eyeball to make sure it is moving normally. To get a better view of the structures in your eye, they could employ specialized equipment. These specialized types of equipment may be,

  • Ophthalmoscope: An ophthalmoscope is a portable device with several lenses and light. It makes the retina and other structures at the rear of your eyeball visible to medical professionals.
  • Slit lamp: One apparatus that rests on a table and platform is a slit light. It sees fine details of the front and rear of your eyeball through the use of specialized lenses and a light source, much like a microscope.



A biopsy involves a medical professional taking a sample of tissue from the tumor and examining it to check for cancerous cells. Most eye malignancies can be detected by medical professionals using imaging and a physical examination. Nevertheless, a biopsy can reveal details about the genetic abnormalities (alterations) that distinguish your cancer cells from other types of cells. This information can be used by your provider to assess the aggressiveness of your cancer, among other aspects of its features. Additionally, it can indicate your eligibility for specific treatments.

  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy: A sample of fluid from your eye is taken with a tiny needle to check for cancerous cells.
  • Incisional biopsy: An expert removes a portion of the tumor and looks for cancerous cells in the tissue.
  • Excisional biopsy: A medical professional removes the entire tumor and looks for cancerous cells in the tissue.


Imaging Test

To diagnose eye cancer, imaging test results and data from your eye exam are frequently sufficient. Typical imaging techniques consist of,

  • Ultrasound: Ultrasounds produce images of the inside of your eyeball by using sound waves. The size and location of a tumor are visible on ultrasounds. They are particularly helpful in the diagnosis of melanomas inside the eyes.
  • Fluorescein angiography: A medical professional will inject a dye into your bloodstream to enhance the visibility of your blood arteries on imaging. Your provider uses a special camera to show how blood is flowing in your eyeball once the dye has had time to reach the blood vessels in it.

How eye cancer is treated?

 Your doctor could advise monitoring your condition and postponing treatment if the tumor is slow-growing or the diagnosis is uncertain, particularly if the hazards of the procedure outweigh the potential benefits. For example, if treating an area could result in visual loss, you might wish to postpone therapy.



Surgery is a frequent course of treatment, particularly in cases of tiny tumors that are contained inside the eyeball. Procedures consist of,

  • Iridectomy: The removal of an iris portion. This method is frequently employed by providers to treat tiny melanomas.
  • Iridocyclectomy: Part of your iris and ciliary body are removed during an iridocyclectomy. This method is frequently employed by providers to treat tiny melanomas.
  • Transscleral resection: Melanomas in your ciliary body or choroid are removed with transscleral resection.
  • Enucleation: Takes out your eye. Large tumors or situations where treatment is not able to maintain your vision may necessitate this procedure. You will then receive a prosthetic eyeball that is identical to your natural eye. To fit you with a replacement that mimics the shape and movement of your natural eye, your medical team will collaborate closely with you.
  • Orbital exenteration: Your whole eyeball and a portion of the surrounding tissue are removed during orbital exenteration. Should the cancer have progressed to the surrounding structures of your eye, your doctor might advise this course of action. Just like with enucleation, you’ll awaken with an implanted artificial eyeball.

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Laser Therapy

Heat is used in laser therapy to eradicate eye cancer. Transpupillary thermotherapy is the most often used kind (TTT). Infrared light is used to target the tumor with intense heat during the operation, which kills cancer cells. Providers can use this alone or in conjunction with brachytherapy to stop cancer from coming back.


Targeted Therapy

Drugs used in targeted therapy aim to attack particular vulnerabilities in cancer cells. If your cancer cells have a mutation in the BRAF gene, you can be a candidate for targeted therapy therapies. Although skin melanomas are now more common with this mutation, eye melanomas may also benefit from this treatment.



Immunotherapy therapies improve your immune system’s ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. The immunotherapy medication tebentafusp is sometimes used by medical professionals to treat uveal melanoma. Immunotherapy is frequently used to treat cancer that has spread or that medical professionals are unable to surgically eliminate.


Radiation Therapy

One of the most popular treatments for eye cancer is radiation therapy.

  • Brachytherapy: Internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, is the most widely used treatment for melanomas of the eyes. To treat the cancer, your doctor will implant a small disc that emits radiation close to the tumor, killing cancer cells.
  • External Beam Radiation Therapy: Radiation is directed toward a tumor using an apparatus that never makes contact with your body in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). One method involves applying large doses of radiation to your tumor in a single therapy session, called stereotactic surgery. Another choice is radiation therapy using proton beams. This is a more recent type of radiation therapy that targets malignancies with precise, high radiation doses. The equipment isn’t available everywhere because it costs a lot to maintain.

How to prevent eye cancer?

Eye cancer cannot be prevented. Even so, if you are aware that you belong to a high-risk category for developing eye cancer, getting checked can help you better understand your prognosis. For instance, if you have BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, you might think about getting regular checkups. Getting your child to have routine eye exams to check for cancer is a good idea if you have a family history of retinoblastoma.

Is eye cancer curable?

Your prognosis, or expected course of treatment, is dependent on a number of variables, such as the size, location, and degree of tumor dissemination. For instance, 95% of small and medium intraocular melanomas are removed with brachytherapy. One may not be able to cure eye cancer. Its growth within your eyeball may be controlled, though. Find out from your healthcare professional what your specific form of eye cancer means for your prognosis.

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Why choose eye cancer treatment in Turkey?

  • Effectiveness of treatments. Turkey provides patients with cutting-edge therapies. Patients are grateful for the favorable results of these cutting-edge therapies.
  • The professionalism of the doctors. Turkish medical professionals with extensive training and experience in treating osteoarthritis carry out a lot of procedures and treatments and are a part of renowned organizations.
  • Service quality. Patients value the excellent quality of service, which includes complimentary services like transportation from the airport to the hospital and translation services.
  • Cost. In Turkey, the cost of treating cancer is more inexpensive than in other countries.