Bone Cancer

Bone Cancer

Bone Cancer is an article that aims to give you all the information you do not know about bone cancer and more. We kindly shared the main headings with you;

What is bone cancer?

The word “bone cancer” refers to a variety of malignancies that arise in the bones. Cancer cells can damage healthy bone tissue when they proliferate within a bone. The kind of bone cancer depends on the kind of cell and tissue where the disease first appears. Primary bone malignancies are tumors that originate inside the bone itself. Numerous cancers that start in the body’s organs or other regions can travel to the bones and other bodily components. We refer to these growths as metastatic or secondary bone malignancies. Most frequently, malignancies of the breast, prostate, and lungs metastasis (spread) to the bones.

Where does bone cancer develop?

There are four different forms,

  • Osteosarcoma: The most prevalent kind of cancer is called osteosarcoma, and it begins in the cells that produce new bone growth. Although it can originate in any bone, it typically does so at the tips of big bones like the arms and legs. Osteosarcoma is most frequently diagnosed by providers in adolescents and teenagers.
  • Ewing sarcoma: Called after the physician who was the first to report this kind of bone cancer, Ewing sarcoma encompasses a wide range of tumors with comparable characteristics that are thought to originate from the same cell types. Both the surrounding soft tissues and the bones may develop these malignancies. Most frequently, Ewing sarcoma develops on long bones like the legs or in the hips, ribs, and shoulder blades.
  • Chondrosarcoma: Cartilage is the first tissue in which chondrosarcoma develops. The soft connective tissue known as cartilage facilitates mobility between bones and joints. The body converts some cartilage to bone by adding calcium to it. The arm, leg, or pelvic bones are where this cancer usually first appears. In contrast to osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma affects adults more often than children.
  • Chordoma: Usually near the base of the skull or the base of the spine, this uncommon tumor starts in the bones of the spine. Similar to chondrosarcoma, chordoma primarily affects elderly persons. This kind of bone cancer affects men more often than women.

Bone Cancer

What are the risk factors of bone cancer?

When cells in the bone expand and divide uncontrollably, a tumor known as bone cancer is the result. Most bone tumors have an exact cause that is frequently unclear, however, a number of factors may be involved in their development,

  • Genetic Factors: Genetic abnormalities or modifications that lead to aberrant cell growth and division can occasionally be the cause of bone cancer. An elevated risk of bone cancer is linked to certain genetic disorders, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary retinoblastoma.
  • Radiation Exposure: The chance of getting bone cancer can be increased by exposure to high doses of radiation, which can come from environmental sources or treatments for other cancers. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME), Paget’s disease of the Bone, and Werner syndrome are examples of inherited genetic illnesses and conditions that are linked to an elevated risk of bone cancer.
  • Prior Cancer Treatments: People who have received radiation therapy or specific chemotherapy drugs in the past for cancer may be more susceptible to bone cancer in the future.
  • Other Factors: Although less frequent, a few factors have been proposed as possible risk factors for bone cancer, including exposure to certain chemicals (vinyl chloride, arsenic), metal implants, chronic bone injury, and chronic osteomyelitis (bone infection). However, a direct correlation between these factors and bone cancer is still unknown.

What are bone cancer symptoms?

Symptoms of the cancer might differ based on the kind, location, and stage of the disease. The following are some typical indications and symptoms,

Bone Cancer

  • Pain and Discomfort: Prolonged soreness or discomfort in the bones that could get worse at night or when exercising. Sharp, dull, or agonizing pains could be experienced, and rest or common painkillers might not help.
  • Swelling or Lump: Tenderness or warmth in the vicinity of the damaged bone, together with palpable or visible swelling or a lump on it.
  • Weakness or Fractures: Without severe trauma or injury, the afflicted bone may weaken and break or fracture. Bone fractures might occur more frequently than you might think.
  • Restricted Range of Motion: Pain or stiffness brought on by the tumor’s existence, which results in decreased mobility or difficulty moving the affected limb or joint.
  • Exhaustion and Weight Loss: In certain situations, particularly when cancer has progressed, there may be widespread exhaustion, weakness, or unexplained weight loss.
  • Bone Discomfort or Sensations: Unusual feelings in the impacted bone, maybe brought on by the tumor’s effect on nearby nerves, such as pressure, tingling, or numbness.

It is crucial to remember that these symptoms are not exclusive to bone cancer; they can also be brought on by several other illnesses, traumas, or disorders. For a more thorough assessment and accurate diagnosis, it is advised to speak with a healthcare provider if any of these symptoms worsen or continue.

What is the diagnosis for bone cancer?

Although the cancer can affect any bone in the body, long bones like those in the arms or legs are most frequently affected it. Timely detection and intervention are essential for the successful management of cancer and the enhancement of prognoses. A biopsy and other diagnostic procedures, including imaging investigations (X-rays, MRIs, CT scans), will be carried out if the cancer is suspected to confirm the diagnosis and ascertain the kind and extent of the malignancy.

To identify if a patient has bone cancer, the type of cancer present, its extent, and the most effective course of therapy, healthcare experts must conduct several examinations and tests. The following procedures are commonly involved in the diagnosis:

  • Medical History and Physical Examination: The patient’s medical history, including symptoms, risk factors, and general health, will be reviewed by a healthcare professional. To look for any indications of anomalies in the bones, swelling, soreness, or restricted range of motion, a comprehensive physical examination will be performed.
  • Imaging Tests: To view the bones and find any anomalies, a variety of imaging tests may be performed. In-depth pictures of bones can be obtained with X-rays, as well as more sophisticated imaging methods like CT (computerized tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The position, size, and features of any tumors or anomalies in the bones can be ascertained with the aid of these imaging examinations.
  • Biopsy: The most reliable way to identify bone cancer is by a biopsy. To find out if cancer cells are present, a pathologist will extract a sample of tissue (bone or tumor tissue) and examine it under a microscope. Various biopsy techniques, such as needle, core, or open biopsy, are employed based on the suspected tumor’s characteristics and location.
  • Blood Tests: While blood tests by themselves are insufficient to make a conclusive diagnosis of bone cancer, they can be used to evaluate specific markers or substances in the blood that may signal anomalies in the bones or the presence of cancer.
  • Bone Scans: A bone scan may be necessary in certain circumstances to identify regions with aberrant bone metabolism. This information can be used to assess if cancer has metastasized—that is, spread to other bones inside the body.
  • Additional Tests: To ascertain the cancer’s stage and possible spread, more tests or procedures may be advised based on the particular circumstances. To assess the severity of the disease, these could involve bone marrow biopsies, PET (positron emission tomography) scans, or other imaging tests.

Following confirmation of the diagnosis of bone cancer through the findings of the biopsy and thorough review, additional testing will be carried out to ascertain the cancer’s stage. Planning the right course of action and determining the prognosis are aided by staging. A multidisciplinary team of medical specialists, comprising radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, pathologists, and oncologists, will work together to create a customized treatment plan that takes into account the patient’s general condition as well as the unique features of the malignancy.

After you get diagnosed you can create your specialized treatment package and calculate the cost of it within a few seconds. Click below. 

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What are the treatment options for bone cancer?

The type of disease, its extent of dissemination, and its location all affect the treatment type. To treat the disease, patients with bone cancer frequently collaborate with a group of medical professionals. Treatment for bone cancer usually entails a mix of methods. The most often employed therapies consist of,



During surgery, the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue are removed by the surgeon. They can also use fake or genuine bone grafts to mend or repair damaged bones. Sometimes the only way to treat cancer is to amputate the entire limb. In this situation, a prosthetic limb can be employed. In certain cases, if not all cancer cells were eliminated after the initial procedure, further surgery is required.


Radiation therapy

This procedure uses high-dose X-rays to shrink the tumors. Before surgery, medical professionals frequently employ radiation to reduce the tumor’s size and require less tissue removal.



This kind of treatment uses medication to kill cancer cells all over the body. Typically, this medication is administered via injection into a vein or by tablet. Chemotherapy is one of the treatment options for primary or metastatic bone tumors provided by your provider.

Why choose Turkey for bone cancer treatment?

Several factors, including the standard of medical care, the availability of cutting-edge treatment options, the experience of medical experts, the cost, ease of travel, and individual preferences, must be taken into account when selecting a nation for cancer treatment, especially bone cancer. Turkey has gained popularity as a medical tourism destination for several reasons, which may entice those seeking treatment for bone cancer,

  • High-quality Healthcare Infrastructure: Turkey has made significant expenditures in its healthcare system, resulting in contemporary clinics and hospitals that are outfitted with cutting-edge equipment for cancer detection, treatment, and surgery.
  • Skilled Healthcare Workers: The nation is home to several highly qualified and experienced medical workers, such as radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, pathologists, and oncologists, who provide high-quality care by worldwide standards.
  • Advanced Cancer Treatment Choices: Turkish medical facilities frequently offer a broad range of advanced cancer treatment choices, such as immunotherapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. They take up cutting-edge methods of treating cancer and take part in scientific investigations and field improvements.
  • Affordability: Those looking for reasonably priced treatment choices may find that medical procedures in Turkey are more cost-effective than in other Western nations, providing high-quality care at a comparatively cheaper cost.

If you have further questions feel free to contact Medical Center Turkey team. Just click below for a free consultation. 

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